MANA_3318 => Lecture Notes

MANA_3318 => Lecture Notes - CHAPTER 5 Motivation o...

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CHAPTER 5 Motivation o The process of arousing and sustaining goal-directed behavior Psychoanalysis o Sigmund Freud’s method for delving into the unconscious mind to better understand a person’s motives and needs. MOTIVATION THEORIES Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs o Emphasizes psychological and interpersonal needs in addition to physical needs and economic necessity. o Need hierarchy The theory that behavior is determined by a progression of physical, social, and psychological needs, including lower-order needs and higher-order needs. o 5 Hierarchical Categories Physiological needs (Theory X) Safety and Security needs (Theory X) Love (social) needs (Theory Y) Esteem needs (Theory Y) Self-actualization needs (Theory Y) o Criticisms People can “digress” or go backwards through the hierarchy People can “skip” levels i.e. starving artists McGregor’s Theory X o Theory X A set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by lower-order needs.
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People are naturally indolent (work as little as possible) People lack ambition, dislike responsibility, and prefer to be led People are inherently self-centered and indifferent to organizational needs. People are by nature resistant to change. People are gullible and not very bright, the ready dupes of the charlatan and the demagogue. o Theory Y A set of assumptions of how to manage individuals who are motivated by higher-order needs. Employee participation programs are one consequence of McGregor’s Theory Y assumptions
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Alderfer’s ERG Theory o Existence need Where Maslow’s physiological and physical safety needs are classified o Relatedness need Where Maslow’s interpersonal safety , love , and interpersonal esteem needs are classified o Growth need Where Maslow’s self-actualization and self-esteem needs are classified. o Added the regression hypothesis to go along with the progression hypothesis originally proposed by Maslow. Helped explain people’s behavior when frustrated at meeting needs at the next higher level in the hierarchy. States that people regress to the next lower category of needs and intensify their desire to gratify these needs. McClelland’s Need Theory o Three Manifest needs (learned or acquired) o Need for Achievement A manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns individuals’ issues of excellence, competition, challenging goals, persistence, and overcoming difficulties o Need to Power A manifest (easily perceived) need that concerns an individual’s need to make an impact on others, influence others, change people or events, and make a difference in life. o
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MANA_3318 => Lecture Notes - CHAPTER 5 Motivation o...

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