01-Unit1 - Business Intelligence and Tools Unit 1 Unit 1...

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Unformatted text preview: Business Intelligence and Tools Unit 1 Unit 1 Introduction to Business Intelligence (BI) Systems Structure 1.1 Introduction Objectives 1.2 A Business Intelligence (BI) System Self Assessment Question(s) (SAQs) 1.3 Delivering the Business Value through a BI System Self Assessment Question(s) (SAQs) 1.4 The Business Dimensional Lifecycle 1.4.1 Project Planning 1.4.2 Project Management 1.4.3 Revising the Project Planning Self Assessment Question(s) (SAQs) 1.5 Roles in a BI Project 1.5.1 Future of BI Systems Self Assessment Question(s) (SAQs) 1.6 Summary 1.7 Terminal Questions (TQs) 1.8 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) 1.9 Answers to SAQs, TQs, and MCQs 1.9.1 Answers to Self Assessment Questions (SAQs) 1.9.2 Answers to Terminal Questions (TQs) 1.9.3 Answers to Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) 1.1 Introduction Discovering the patterns and trends in massive data available within the organization is one of the grand challenges of the organizations in the current information age. In the book, “Business @ the Speed of Thought: Using a Digital Nervous System,” Bill Gates states that the most meaningful way to differentiate one’s organization from its competitors is to do an Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 1 Business Intelligence and Tools Unit 1 outstanding job with information. In the 1990s, organizations around the globe made huge investments in legacy systems that resulted in the accumulation of large amounts of data with the organizations. But these systems were mainly concentrated on producing the traditional type ‘rowcolumn reports'. These are the “track and trace” type reports and so organizations find it difficult to generate reports across different functional areas. Manager’s lack of multidimensional perspective and the difficulty to gain access to the organizational information paved the way for the development of Business Intelligence tools. In this scenario, organizations are now focusing on designing and building the Business Intelligence systems with an objective to effectively manage the organization’s data, information and enable the organization to gain competitive advantage over its competitors. Objectives The objectives of the Unit are: The purpose of a Business Intelligence system in an Organization The process to deliver the business value through the BI System The Business Dimensional Lifecycle approach to study a BI System Roles involved in implanting a BI project The future scenario of BI systems 1.2 A Business Intelligence (BI) System Business Intelligence (BI) is a generic term used to describe leveraging the organizational internal and external data, information for making the best possible business decisions. The field of Business intelligence is very diverse and comprises the tools and technologies used to access and analyze various types of business information. These tools gather and store the data and allow the user to view and analyze the information from a wide variety of dimensions and thereby assist the decision-makers make better business decisions. Thus the Business Intelligence (BI) systems and tools Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 2 Business Intelligence and Tools Unit 1 play a vital role as far as organizations are concerned in making improved decisions in the current cut throat competitive scenario. In simple terms, Business Intelligence is an environment in which business users receive reliable, consistent, meaningful and timely information. This data enables the business users conduct analyses that yield overall understanding of how the business has been, how it is now and how it will be in the near future. Also, the BI tools monitor the financial and operational health of the organization through generation of various types of reports, alerts, alarms, key performance indicators and dashboards. Business intelligence tools are a type of application software designed to help in making better business decisions. These tools aid in the analysis and presentation of data in a more meaningful way and so play a key role in the strategic planning process of an organization. They illustrate business intelligence in the areas of market research and segmentation, customer profiling, customer support, profitability, and inventory and distribution analysis to name a few. Various types of BI systems viz. Decision Support Systems, Executive Information Systems (EIS), Multidimensional Analysis software or OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) tools, data mining tools are discussed further. Whatever is the type, the Business Intelligence capabilities of the system is to let its users slice and dice the information from their organization's numerous databases without having to wait for their IT departments to develop complex queries and elicit answers. Although it is possible to build BI systems without the benefit of a data warehouse, most of the systems are an integral part of the user-facing end of the data warehouse in practice. In fact, we can never think of building a data warehouse without BI Systems. That is the reason; sometimes, the words ‘data warehousing’ and ‘business intelligence’ are being used interchangeably. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 3 Business Intelligence and Tools Unit 1 Figure 1.1 depicts how the data from one end gets transformed to information at the other end for business information. Data Analysis Cleanse Transform Summarize Data from Operational Systems Historical data Consistent Optimized for querying, analysis, and reporting Information, Reports for business decisions Fig 1.1: A Business Intelligence (BI) System Self Assessment Question(s) (SAQs) (For Section 1.2) 1. What is a ‘Business Intelligence System’? Give the example of BI systems. 1.3 Delivering the Business Value through a BI System A business intelligence project can be successful only when the BI system is able to deliver the business value. Thus, the most important determinant of long-term success of a BI system is the ‘Business Value’ delivered by such a system. The business value that organizations derive through the use of BI Systems is as follows: The BI applications provide data access for broad, important user community. This enables the managers to build their own reports at their convenience. The BI applications assist in data validation. For example, a report that compares the sales by product type, gender and store would pull the data from three different dimensions; product, customer and store. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 4 Business Intelligence and Tools Unit 1 The BI applications can generate more complex queries and they can be effectively used to get the ongoing performance metrics. Fig 1.2 details how a BI system delivers business value from the data available within an organization for a given set of business drivers of an organization. However, delivery of the business value is not that easy in practice. The manager of a BI system has to take care of the following steps in order to deliver the intended business value: Step 1: Ensuing strong business partnership Developing a solid business sponsorship is the first step to start a BI project. Your business sponsors (it is generally good to have more than one) will take a lead role in determining the purpose, content, and priorities of the system and so the business sponsors are expected to have the following skills; Visionary - a sense for the value and potential of information with clear, specific ideas as to how to apply it. Resourceful - able to obtain necessary resources and facilitate the organizational change that the BI system will bring about. Reasonable - can temper the enthusiasm with the understanding that the BI system takes time and resources to come out as a major information system. Step 2: Defining organizational-level business requirements The long-term goal of a BI system is to build an organizational-wide information infrastructure. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 5 Business Intelligence and Tools Unit 1 Fig. 1.2: Delivery of Business Value through a BI System This cannot be done unless the BI system developing team understands business requirements at an organizational level. Thus the process of understanding the organizational-level business requirements includes the following steps: Establishing the initial Project Scope Interviewing the BI System stakeholders Gathering the organizational level business requirements Preparation of an overall Requirements document Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 6 Business Intelligence and Tools Unit 1 Step 3: Prioritizing the business requirements The prioritization process is a planning meeting that involves the BI system developing team, the business sponsors, and other key senior managers across the organization. A Prioritization Grid can be developed for the set of business processes identified in the previous step against the feasibility of a business process and the business value that the processes likely generate. Thus the output of a prioritization process is a list of business processes in the priority order. Step 4: Planning the Business Intelligence project After getting the complete understanding about the business priorities, the BI System developing team revisits the Project plan. Now the plan is made based on the priority of the business processes detailed in the previous step. Step 5: Defining the Project-level business requirements Based on the previous steps, now the BI System developing team defines and documents the project-level business requirements. These requirements act as guidelines while developing the BI system. Self Assessment Question(s) (SAQs) (For Section 1.3) 1. Explain how BI applications enable the organizations in delivering the business value. 1.4 The Business Dimensional Lifecycle The Business Dimensional Lifecycle is a methodology adopted for planning, designing, implementing and maintaining the BI system. Various steps involved in this approach are depicted below. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 7 Business Intelligence and Tools Unit 1 Project Planning Defining the Business Requirements Technical Architecture Design Dimensional Modeling Physical Design Selection and Installation of a Product Project Management BI Application Specification BI Application Development ETL Design & Development Deployment Maintenance Growth Fig. 1.3: Phases in Business Dimensional Lifecycle Each of the phases in the above life cycle is described below. 1.4.1 Project Planning Developing a project plan involves identification of all the tasks necessary to implement the BI project. The Project Manager identifies the key team members, assigns the tasks, and develops the effort estimates for their tasks. There is much interplay between this activity and the activity of defining the Business Requirements and aligning the BI system/data warehouse system with the business requirements is very crucial. Therefore you need to understand the business requirements properly before proceeding further. 1.4.2 Project Management This is the phase wherein the actual implementation of the project takes place. The first step here is to define the business requirements and the Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 8 Business Intelligence and Tools Unit 1 implementation is carried out in three phases on the basis of the requirements. The first phase (includes technical architecture design, selection and installation of a product) deals with technology, the second phase (includes Dimensional Modeling, Physical Design, ETL Design & Development) focuses on data and the last phase (includes BI Application Specification, BI Application Development) deals with design and development of analytical applications. The steps in these phases are discussed below. 1.4.2.1 Defining the Business Requirements Business requirements are the bedrock of the BI system and so the Business Requirements Definition acts as the foundation of the Lifecycle methodology. The business requirements defined at this stage provide the necessary guidance to make the decisions. This process mainly includes the following activities: Requirements planning Collecting the business requirements Post-collection documentation and follow-up 1.4.2.2 Technical Architecture Design Creation of the Technical Architecture includes the following steps: 1. Establishing an Architecture task-force 2. Collecting Architecture-related requirements 3. Documenting the Architecture requirements 4. Developing a high-level Architectural model 5. Designing and specifying the subsystems 6. Determining Architecture implementation phases 7. Documenting the technical Architecture 8. Reviewing and finalizing the Architecture Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 9 Business Intelligence and Tools Unit 1 1.4.2.3 Selection and Installation of a Product The selection and the installation of a business intelligence product is carried out in the following steps: 1. Understanding the corporate purchasing process 2. Developing a product evaluation matrix 3. Conducting market research 4. Shortlisting the options and performing detailed evaluations 5. Conducting a prototype (if necessary) 6. Selecting a product, installing on trial, and negotiating the value/price. 1.4.2.4 Dimensional Modeling A dimensional model packages the data in a symmetric format whose design goals are obtaining the user know-how, query performance, and resilience to change. In this step, a data-modeling team is formed and design workshops are conducted to create the dimensional model. Once the modeling team is confident of the model prepared, the model is demonstrated and validated with a broader audience and then documented. 1.4.2.5 Physical Design In this step, the dimensional model created in the previous step is translated into a physical design. The physical model includes the details viz., physical database, data types, key declarations, permissibility of nulls. 1.4.2.6 ETL Design & Development ETL stands for Extraction, Transformation, and Loading. ETL tools are used to extract the data from the operational data sources and to load the same into a data warehouse. 1.4.2.7 BI Application Specification In this step, a set of analytical applications are identified for building a BI system based on the business requirements definition, type of data being used, and the architecture of the warehouse proposed. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 10 Business Intelligence and Tools Unit 1 1.4.2.8 BI Application Development This is step wherein a specific application (tool) is selected from the identified applications for actual implementation of the BI system. 1.4.2.9 Deployment This is the step wherein the technology, data and analytical application tracks are converged. The completion of this step can be assumed as the completion of actual building of the BI system. 1.4.2.10 Maintenance & Growth During this step, the project team provides the user-support to the end-users of the system. Also, the team involves in providing the technical support required for the system so as ensure the continuous utilization of the system. This step may also include making some minor enhancements to the BI system. 1.4.3 Revising the Project Planning As the project makes progress, the project manager of the project has to revise the project plan to accommodate the new business interests, concerns raised by the end-users. Self Assessment Question(s) (SAQs) (For Section 1.4) 1. What is the purpose of a Business Dimensional Lifecycle and enumerate the steps involved in implementing this methodology? 1.5 Roles in a BI Project A typical BI Project consists of the following roles and the responsibilities of each of these roles are detailed below: Project Manager: Monitors the progress on continuum basis and is responsible for the success of the project. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 11 Business Intelligence and Tools Unit 1 Technical Architect: Develops and implements the overall technical architecture of the BI system, from the backend hardware/software to the client desktop configurations. Database Administrator (DBA): Keeps the database available for the applications to run smoothly and also involves in planning and executing a backup/recovery plan, as well as performance tuning. ETL Developer: Involves himself in planning, developing, and deploying the extraction, transformation, and loading routine for the data warehouse from the legacy systems. Front End Developer: Develops the front-end, whether it be client-server or over the web. OLAP Developer: Dexlops the OLAP cubes. Data Modeler: Is responsible for taking the data structure that exists in the enterprise and model it into a scheme that is suitable for OLAP analysis. QA Group: Ensures the correctness of the data in the data warehouse. Trainer: Works with the end users to make them familiar with how the front end is set up so that the end users can get the most benefit out of the system. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 12 Business Intelligence and Tools Unit 1 1.5.1 Future of BI Systems The current BI systems are focused on providing information within an organization to end-users and are evolved to solve the problem of poor knowledge sharing. Thus these BI applications include the activities of query and reporting, decision support, online analytical processing (OLAP), forecasting, statistical analysis, and data mining. But the business today has become more complex with new regulations and an increased focus on compliances making the organizations to be more careful in the decisionmaking process. As the traditional BI systems focus on latency ridden extract, load, and query data warehousing cycles, the managers had to rely on out-of-date information. Thus the goal of future BI systems is to reduce data access, analysis and decision making latencies and maximize the data value. The data latency can be reduced dramatically by using in-memory processing in place of storing data on a disk. Similarly, the analysis latency can be reduced by automating the interpretation of the data and thus decision latency can be eliminated in most of the operational decisions by automating the processes. The architecture of future BI systems would be event based and so they get data directly from middleware, the natural place to turn for real-time data. Using modern 'Event Stream Processing' technology, the future BI systems can be easily integrated with Enterprise Application Integration (EAI) and with Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) infrastructure. Therefore the future BI systems work with well-defined processes and less-defined areas and organizations get the advantage of real time alerts and actions, and automated analysis. Self Assessment Question(s) (SAQs) (For Section 1.5) 1. Discuss the various roles involved in the execution of a BI project? Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 13 Business Intelligence and Tools Unit 1 1.6 Summary Gathering and analyzing the data from various internal and external sources of an organization is a key process in making business decisions. To improve this decision making process, the organizations are now focusing on building the Business Intelligence systems that can effectively manage the organization’s data and information. Thus the BI systems enable the organization gain competitive advantage over its competitors in the current cut throat competitive scenario. Decision Support Systems, Executive Information Systems, online analytical processing tools, and data mining tools are the important BI systems being used widely. To deliver the intended business value, the BI system development team has to undergo the following processes; ensuing strong business partnership, defining organizational-level business requirements, prioritizing the business requirements, planning the business intelligence project, and defining the project-level business requirements. The Business Dimensional Lifecycle is a methodology adopted for planning, designing, implementing and maintaining the BI system. This process includes the following steps; Defining the Business Requirements, Technical Architecture Design, Selection and Installation of a Product, Dimensional Modeling, Physical Design, ETL Design & Development, BI Application Specification, BI Application Development, Deployment, Maintenance & Growth, and Revising the Project Planning. In spite of their attractive bells and whistles, the BI tools alone cannot provide the business solutions. It is the practitioner who has to make important decisions like how and what techniques need to be employed. At the same time, the kind of assistance provided by the tools in making the business decisions cannot be undermined. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 14 Business Intelligence and Tools Unit 1 1.7 Terminal Questions (TQs) 1. Discuss the role of a data warehouse in a Business Intelligence system? 2. Differentiate the following terms; Data, Information, Knowledge, and Intelligence in your own words. 3. Analyze the application of BI systems specific to the following industries: A. Financial industry B. Manufacturing industry C. Telecommunications industry D. Retail industry E. Insurance industry 1.8 Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) 1. Which of the following defines a broad category of applications and technologies for gathering, storing, analyzing, and providing access to data to help organizations make better business decisions? a. Information b. Decision Making System c. Business Intelligence System d. Data Managing System 2. Which of the following terms is being used as a substitute for business intelligence (in general)? a. Data warehousing b. Executive Information System c. Decision Support System d. On-Line Analytical Processing 3. Which of the following statements is wrong with regard to a Business Intelligence (BI) system? a. The BI systems gather and analyze the data collected from various data sources. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 15 Business Intelligence and Tools Unit 1 b. The BI Systems provides the detailed reports to improve the decision-making ability of an executive. c. The BI Systems automate the business decision-making processes and the managers do not require any role to play. d. The BI Systems can be effectively used to track the key performance indicators. 4. Which of the following describes the role played by the Business Sponsors while developing a BI System? a. The business sponsors will provide the list of technologies and tools to be used for developing the BI system. b. The business sponsors gather and analyze the data collected from various data sources to identify an appropriate model of a BI system. c. The business sponsors track the progress of the BI system development and report the same to the senor management at regular intervals of time. d. The business sponsors assist the BI developing team in determining the purpose and priorities of the BI system 5. Which of the aspects of the BI system is taken care by the steps dimensional modeling and physical design? a. Technology b. Design of an application c. Maintenance of a BI system d. Data 6. Which of the statement(s) describe(s) the reason for defining the Business Requirements in developing a BI system? a. Business requirements provide the inputs required for designing a BI System Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 16 Business Intelligence and Tools Unit 1 b. The essence of developing a BI system is to create business value and it is possible only if the business requirements are understood properly c. Both (A) and (B) d. None of the above 7. Which of the following is a Business Intelligence system(s)? a. Executive Information Systems (EIS) b. Decision Support Systems (DSS) c. On-Line Analytical Processing (OLAP) d. All the above 8. ETL stands for a. Enter, Transfer, Lengthen b. Extract, Transform, Load c. Extract, Transfer, Lengthen d. Enter, Transform, Load 9. Which of the following acts as a base for designing and developing a BI system? a. Understanding the business requirements b. Use of latest technology c. The ability of the project manager d. The financial resources assigned for the project 10. Which of the following steps in the Business Dimensional Life Cycle deals with technology track? 1. Technical Architecture Design 2. Selection and installation of the product 3. Dimensional modeling 4. ETL Design a. 1 & 2 Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 17 Business Intelligence and Tools Unit 1 b. Only 1 c. 1,2 and 4 d. 1,2 and 3 1.9 Answers to SAQs, TQs, and MCQs: 1.9.1 Answers to Self Assessment Questions (SAQs): Section 1.2 1. Business Intelligence System is a broad category of applications and technologies for gathering, storing, analyzing, and providing access to data to help organizations make better business decisions. The Business Intelligence is an environment in which business users receive the reliable, consistent, and understandable information timely and this data enable the business users to improve their decision making abilities. Various types of BI systems include Decision Support Systems, Executive Information Systems (EIS), Multidimensional Analysis software or OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) tools, data mining tools. Section 1.3 1. BI Systems enable the organization increase the business value. They provide data access for broad, important user community of the organization so that the managers can prepare their own reports at their convenience through use of the entire historical data and the current data. Also, the BI systems can generate more complex queries and so they can be effectively used to get the ongoing performance metrics. Activities like ‘data validation’ can also be done through use of BI systems. Section 1.4 1. The Business Dimensional Lifecycle is a methodology adopted for planning, designing, implementing and maintaining the BI system. Various steps involved in this approach include defining the business Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 18 Business Intelligence and Tools Unit 1 requirements, technical architecture design, selection and installation of a product, dimensional modeling, physical design, ETL design & development, BI application specification, BI application development, deployment, maintenance & growth, and revising the project planning. Section 1.5 1. The important roles in the execution of a BI project include Project Manager, Technical Architect, DBA, ETL Developer, OLAP Developer, Data Modeler, QA Group, and Trainer. You may elaborate these roles as discussed in the Section 1.5. 1.9.2 Answers to Terminal Questions (TQs): 1. Gathering and analyzing the data from various internal and external sources of an organization is a key process in making business decisions. Therefore organizations today are focusing on building the Business Intelligence systems to manage the organization’s data and information effectively and also to improve the decision making processes. Here, ‘data warehouse’ comes in to the picture as it is designed in order to store a large amount of data (both historical data and the current data from the OLTP systems). The BI systems designed in the originations in turn obtain the data from the data warehouse and process it to aid the decision making processes. Although it is possible to build BI systems without a data warehouse, most of the systems are being built as an integral part of the user-facing end of the data warehouse in practice. 2. ‘Data’ is defined as a numerical or any other fact(s) represented or recorded. It is represented or recorded in a form that is suitable for processing by a computer. In terms of business intelligence system, the data refers to a record or result of a transaction or an operation that involves addition, deletion, and/or modification of the content of a database. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 19 Business Intelligence and Tools Unit 1 ‘Information’ is the processed data in a meaningful way and so becomes useful and provides answers to questions such as "who", "what", "where", and "when". Organizations create information by summarizing or analyzing the data. This information is designed to increase the knowledge of an individual and is tailored to the needs of the recipient. Use of the information will lead to creation of the knowledge. Knowledge provides an insight by answering the "how" questions. Also, Knowledge is the understanding gained through experience or study. Intelligence is appreciation of "why" and is the application of knowledge toward the attainment of common goals. 3. The application of the BI systems in various industries is as provided below. A. Financial Industry: Customer profitability analysis: Enables to understand the overall profitability accurately. Consolidates activity based costing and sales data for a defined time period Credit management: Establishes the patterns of credit issues by customer class and type. Provides the means to manage credit limits, early warnings to help customers avoid credit related problems Provides accurate valuation of an institution’s credit portfolio. Forecasts the impact of change in credit policy. Branch sales: Provides customer information to improve customer service and account selling Improves customer support, sales and strengthens customer loyalty. Reduces the paper work Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 20 Business Intelligence and Tools Unit 1 B. Manufacturing industry: Sales/Marketing: Provides analyses of customer-specific transaction data. Enables to understand the consumer behavior and its changing trends Forecasting: Forecasts the demand for a specific product Determines the accurate inventory requirements Distribution and logistics: Helps the distribution centers manage increased quantities. Uses advance shipment information to schedule and consolidate inbound and outbound freight. Transportation management: Develops optimal load consolidation plans and routing schedules C. Telecommunications industry: Customer profiling and segmentation: Determines the high-profit generating product profiles and customer segments Provides detailed reports on competition, and channel patterns. Allows the development of individualized frequent-caller programs Customer demand forecasting: Analyzes customers' historical product usage to forecast future product needs Provides basis for churn analysis and control for improving customer retention. Links to network investment, price modeling, and competitive analysis Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 21 Business Intelligence and Tools Unit 1 D. Retail industry: Forecasting: Defines accurate inventory requirements Provides informed decisions about which items to order and to determine their optimum quantity Marketing: Provides analyses of customer-specific transaction data. Understands the changing patterns of the customer choices and strengthens the consumer 'pull'. Merchandising: Provides quick, detailed access to sales and inventory data Focuses more on store-ad-item level performance. Can buy more strategically, defining the right merchandise for the market at any point in time. Can refine inventory, do continuous merchandise planning and flow management. Distribution and logistics: Helps the distribution centers manage increased volumes. Uses advance shipment information to schedule and consolidate inbound and outbound freight. Transportation management: Develops the optimal load consolidation plans and routing schedules Inventory planning: Helps in identifying the inventory level needed, item by item, to ensure a given grade of service. Helps warehouse planners assign products to locations so as to minimize distances, improve efficiency Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 22 Business Intelligence and Tools Unit 1 Balances the supply, demand, and capacity to determine how to allocate limited quantities of finished goods Space management: Provides the store-specific sales patterns and category space through use of Planograms E. Insurance: Claims and premium analysis: Analyzes detailed claims and premium history by product, policy holder, claim type, and other specifics Enables the insurer to set reserves based on detailed, timely data Analyzes severity trends based on experience and reduce severity using a methodology that crosses line-of-business characteristics and integrates outside data sources accessed on-line. Pricing is then based on appropriate performance factors. Customer analysis: Analyzes the client needs and product usage patterns Develops the marketing programs based on client characteristics Conducts risk analysis and cause-of-loss determination across products. Produces profitability reports by client and identify opportunities. Provides customer-support personnel with detail information about each client, improving client service Risk analysis: Details the risk of introducing a new product or insuring a new customer Identifies the high-risk market segments and opportunities in specific segments. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 23 Business Intelligence and Tools Unit 1 Relates market segments to each other and qualifies their combined risk 1.9.3 Answers to Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs): 1. Ans. c 2. Ans. a 3. Ans. c 4. Ans. d 5. Ans. d 6. Ans. c 7. Ans. d 8. Ans. b 9. Ans. a 10. Ans. a Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 24 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/15/2010 for the course MBA mba taught by Professor Smu during the Spring '10 term at Manipal University.

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