09-Unit9 - Research Methodology Unit 9 Unit 9 Schedule and...

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Unformatted text preview: Research Methodology Unit 9 Unit 9 Schedule and Questionnaire Structure 9.1 Meaning of schedules and questionnaire Objectives 9.2 Types of questionnaire 9.2.1 9.2.2 9.3 Structured or standard questionnaire Unstructured questionnaire Processes of data collection 9.3.1 9.3.2 Personal Delivery 9.3.3 Attaching Questionnaire to products 9.3.4 Advertising Questionnaire 9.3.5 News stat insert 9.3.6 9.4 Alternate method of sending questionnaires Improving the response in a mail survey Importance of questionnaire 9.4.1 9.4.2 9.5 Advantages of questionnaire Disadvantages of Questionnaire Distinction between schedule and questionnaire Self Assessment Questions 9.6 Summary 9.7 Terminal Questions 9.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs 9.1 Meaning of Schedule and Questionnaire The mail survey is another method of collecting primary data. This method involves sending questionnaires to the respondents with a request to complete them and return them by post. This can be used in the case of educated respondents only. The mail questionnaires should be simple so that the respondents can easily understand the questions and answer them. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 110 Research Methodology Unit 9 It should preferably contain mostly closed-end and multiple choice questions so that it could be completed within a few minutes. The distinctive feature of the mail survey is that the questionnaire is selfadministered by the respondents themselves and the responses are recorded by them, and not by the investigator as in the case of personal interview method. It does not involve face-to-face conversation between the investigator and the respondent. Communication is carried out only in writing and this required more cooperation from the respondents than in verbal communication Objectives After studying this lesson you should be able to understand: Types of questionnaire Structured or standard questionnaire Unstructured questionnaire Processes of data collection Alternate method of sending questionnaires Importance of questionnaire Advantages of questionnaire Disadvantages of Questionnaire Distinction between schedule and questionnaire 9.2 Types of Questionnaires Questionnaires may be classified as: 9.2.1 Structured/ standardized questionnaire Structured questionnaires are those in which there are definite, concrete and preordained questions with additional questions limited to those necessary to clarify inadequate answers or to elicit more detailed Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 111 Research Methodology Unit 9 responses. The questions are presented with exactly the same wording and in the same order to all the respondents. 9.2.2 Unstructured questionnaire In unstructured questionnaires the respondent is given the opportunity to answer in his own terms and in his own frame of reference. 9.3 Process of Data Collection The researcher should prepare a mailing list of the selected respondents by collecting the addresses from the telephone directory of the association or organization to which they belong. A covering letter should accompany a copy of the questionnaire. Exhibit 7.1 is a copy of a covering letter used by the author in a research study on ‘corporate planning’. It must explain to the respondent the purpose of the study and the importance of his cooperation to the success of the project. Anonymity may be assured. 9.3.1 Alternative Modes of Sending Questionnaires There are some alternative methods of distributing questionnaires to the respondents. They are: (1) personal delivery, (2) attaching questionnaire to a product (3) advertising questionnaire in a newspaper of magazine, and (4) news stand insets. 9.3.2 Personal Delivery The researcher or his assistant may deliver the questionnaires to the potential respondents with a request to complete them at their convenience. After a day or two he can collect the completed questionnaires from them. Often referred to as the self-administered questionnaire method, it combines the advantages of the personal interview and the mail survey. Alternatively, the questionnaires may be delivered in person and the completed questionnaires may be returned by mail by the respondents. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 112 Comment [V1]: Kindly check Research Methodology Unit 9 9.3.3 Attaching Questionnaire to a Product A firm test marketing a product may attach a questionnaire to a product and request the buyer to complete it and mail it back to the firm. The respondent is usually rewarded by a gift or a discount coupon. 9.3.4 Advertising the Questionnaires The questionnaire with the instructions for completion may be advertised on a page of magazine or in section of newspapers. The potential respondent completes it tears it out and mails it to the advertiser. For example, the committee of Banks customer services used this method. Management studies for collecting information from the customers of commercial banks in India. This method may be useful for large-scale on topics of common interest. 9.3.5 News-Stand Inserts This method involves inserting the covering letter, questionnaire and self addressed reply-paid envelope into a random sample of news-stand copies of a newspaper or magazine. 9.3.6 Improving the Response Rate in a Mail survey The response rate in mail surveys is generally very low more so in developing countries like India. Certain techniques have to be adopted to increase the response rate. They are: 1. Quality Printing: The questionnaire may be neatly printed in quality light coloured paper, so as to attract the attention of the respondent. 2. Covering Letter: The covering letter should be couched in a pleasant style so as to attract and hold the interest of the respondent. It must anticipate objections and answer them briefly. It is a desirable to address the respondent by name. 3. Advance Information: Advance information can be provided to potential respondents by a telephone call or advance notice in the Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 113 Research Methodology Unit 9 newsletter of the concerned organization or by a letter. Such preliminary contact with potential respondents is more successful than follow up efforts. 4. Incentives: Money, stamps for collection and other incentives are also used to induce respondents to complete and return mail questionnaire. 5. Follow-up-contacts: In the case of respondents belonging to an organization, they may be approached through some one in that organization known as the researcher. 6. Larger sample size: A larger sample may be drawn than the estimated sample size. For example, if the required sample size is 1000, a sample of 1500 may be drawn. This may help the researcher to secure an effective sample size closer to the required size. 9.4 Importance of Questionnaire The significance of questionnaire method is that it affords great facilities in collecting data from large, diverse, and widely scattered groups of people. It is used in gathering objective, quantitative data as well as for securing information of a qualitative nature. In some studies, questionnaire is the sole research tool utilised but it is more often used in conjunction with other methods of investigations. In questionnaire technique, great reliance is placed on the respondent’s verbal report for data on the stimuli or experiences which is exposed as also for data on his behaviour. 9.4.1 Advantages of Questionnaires The advantages of mail surveys are: They are less costly than personal interviews, as cost of mailing is the same through out the country, irrespective of distance. They can cover extensive geographical areas. Mailing is useful in contacting persons such as senior business executives who are difficult to reach in any other way. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 114 Research Methodology Unit 9 The respondents can complete the questionnaires at their convenience. Mail surveys, being more impersonal, provide more anonymity than personal interviews. Mail surveys are totally free from the interviewer’s bias, as there is no personal contact between the respondents and the investigator. Certain personal and economic data may be given accurately in an unsigned mail questionnaire. 9.4.2 Disadvantages of Questionnaires The disadvantages of mail surveys are: 1. The scope for mail surveys is very limited in a country like India where the percentage of literacy is very low. 2. The response rate of mail surveys is low. Hence, the resulting sample will not be a representative one. 9.5 Distinction between schedules and questionnaires Questionnaires are mailed to the respondent whereas schedules are carried by the investigator himself. Questionnaires can be filled by the respondent only if he is able to understand the language in which it is written and he is supposed to be a literate. This problem can be overcome in case of schedule since the investigator himself carries the schedules and the respondent’s response is accordingly taken. A questionnaire is filled by the respondent himself whereas the schedule is filled by the investigator. Self assessment questions Fill in the blanks 1. The response rate in mail surveys is generally very -----------. 2. ----------- can cover extensive geographical areas. 3. Mail surveys, being more impersonal, provide more ------------ than personal interviews. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 115 Research Methodology Unit 9 4. Mail surveys are totally free from ------------------ as there is no personal contact between the respondents and the investigator 9.6 Summary The mail survey is another method of collecting primary data. This method involves sending questionnaires to the respondents with a request to complete them and return them by post. The distinctive feature of the mail survey is that the questionnaire is self-administered by the respondents themselves and the responses are recorded by them, and not by the investigator as in the case of personal interview method. There are some alternative methods of distributing questionnaires to the respondents. They are: (1) personal delivery, (2) attaching questionnaire to a product (3) advertising questionnaire in a newspaper or a magazine, and (4) news stand insets. The response rate in mail surveys is generally very low, more so in developing countries like India. Certain techniques have to be adopted to increase the response rate. They are less costly than personal interviews, as cost of mailing is the same through out the country, irrespective of distances. They can cover extensive geographical areas. Mailing is useful in contacting persons such as senior business executives who are difficult to reach in any other way. The respondents can complete the questionnaires at their conveniences Mail surveys, being more impersonal, provide more anonymity than personal interviews. Mail surveys are totally free from the interviewer’s bias, as there is no personal contact between the respondents and the investigator. Certain personal and economic data may be given accurately in an unsigned mail questionnaire. The scope for mail surveys is very limited in a country like India where the percentage of literacy is very low. The response rate of mail surveys is low. Hence, the resulting sample will not be a representative one. The significance of questionnaire method is that it Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 116 Research Methodology Unit 9 affords great facilities in collecting data from large, diverse, and widely scattered groups of people. Questionnaires are mailed to the respondent whereas schedules are carried by the investigator himself. A questionnaire is filled by the respondent himself whereas the schedule is filled by the investigator. 9.7 Terminal Questions 1. What are a Schedule and a Questionnaire? 2. What are the alternative modes of sending Questionnaires? 3. What are the ways to improve the Response Rate in a Mail survey? 4. What are the advantages of Questionnaires? 5. Discuss the disadvantages of Questionnaires 6. What is the importance of Questionnaire? 7. Distinguish between schedules and questionnaires 9.8 Answers to SAQs and TQs SAQs 1. Low 2. Mail surveys 3. Anonymity 4. The interviewer’s bias, TQs 1. Section 9.1 2. Section 9.3.3 3. Section 9.36 4. Section 9.4.1 5. Section 9.4.2 6. Section 9.4 7. Section 9.5 Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 117 ...
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