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Unformatted text preview: e are directly related or positively co-related. Thus, correlation indicates
the relationship between two such variables in which changes in the value of
one variable is accompanies with a change in the value of other variable.
Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 201 Research Methodology Unit 11 According to L.R. Connor, “if two or more quantities vary in sympathy so that
movements in the one tend to be accompanied by corresponding
movements in the other(s) they are said to be correlated”.
W.I. King defined “Correlation means that between two series or groups of
data, there exists some casual connection”.
The definitions make it clear that the term correlation refers to the study of
relationship between two or more variables. Correlation is a statistical
device, which studies the relationship between two variables. If two
variables are said to be correlated, change in the value of one variable
result in a corresponding change in the value of other variable. Heights and
weights of a group of people, age of husbands and wives etc., are examples
of bi-variant data that change together.
Correlation and Causation
Although, the term correlation is used in the sense of mutual dependence of
two or more variable, it is not always necessary that they have cause and
effect relation. Even a high degree of correlation between two variables
does not necessarily indicate a cause and effect relationship between them.
Correlation between two variables can be due to following reasons:(a) Cause and effect relationship: Heat and temperature are cause and
effect variable. Heat is the cause of temperature. Higher the heat, higher
will be the temperature.
(b) Both the correlated variables are being affected by a third variable. For
instance, price of rice and price of sugar are affected by rainfall. Here
there may not be any cause and effect relation between price of rice and
price of sugar.
(c) Related variable may be mutually affecting each other so that none of
them is either a cause or an effect. Demand may be the r...
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- Spring '10