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Unformatted text preview: of software packages. Manual tabulation is
suitable for small and simple studies.
11. 7.1 Manual Tabulation
When data are transcribed in a classified form as per the planned scheme of
classification, category-wise totals can be extracted from the respective
columns of the work sheets. A simple frequency table counting the number
of “Yes” and “No” responses can be made easily by counting the “Y”
response column and “N” response column in the manual worksheet table
prepared earlier. This is a one-way frequency table and they are readily
inferred from the totals of each column in the work sheet. Sometimes the
researcher has to cross tabulate two variables, for instance, the age group
of vehicle owners. This requires a two-way classification and cannot be
inferred straight from any technical knowledge or skill. If one wants to
prepare a table showing the distribution of respondents by age, a tally sheet
showing the age groups horizontally is prepared. Tally marks are then made
for the respective group i.e., ‘vehicle owners’, from each line of response in
the worksheet. After every four tally, the fifth tally is cut across the previous
four tallies. This represents a group of five items. This arrangement
facilitates easy counting of each one of the class groups. Illustration of this
tally sheet is present below. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 159 Research Methodology Unit 11 Age groups Tally marks Below II 20-39 IIII IIII IIII 40-59 IIII IIII IIII Above 59 IIII No. of Responses
2 IIII IIII III 23
10 Total 50 Although manual tabulation is simple and easy to construct, it can be
tedious, slow and error-prone as responses increase.
Computerized tabulation is easy with the help of software packages. The
input requirement will be the column and row variables. The software
package then computes the number of records in each cell of three row
column categories. The most popular package is the Statistical package for
Social Science (SPSS). It is an integrated set of programs suitab...
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- Spring '10