Manual tabulation is suitable for small and simple

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Unformatted text preview: of software packages. Manual tabulation is suitable for small and simple studies. 11. 7.1 Manual Tabulation When data are transcribed in a classified form as per the planned scheme of classification, category-wise totals can be extracted from the respective columns of the work sheets. A simple frequency table counting the number of “Yes” and “No” responses can be made easily by counting the “Y” response column and “N” response column in the manual worksheet table prepared earlier. This is a one-way frequency table and they are readily inferred from the totals of each column in the work sheet. Sometimes the researcher has to cross tabulate two variables, for instance, the age group of vehicle owners. This requires a two-way classification and cannot be inferred straight from any technical knowledge or skill. If one wants to prepare a table showing the distribution of respondents by age, a tally sheet showing the age groups horizontally is prepared. Tally marks are then made for the respective group i.e., ‘vehicle owners’, from each line of response in the worksheet. After every four tally, the fifth tally is cut across the previous four tallies. This represents a group of five items. This arrangement facilitates easy counting of each one of the class groups. Illustration of this tally sheet is present below. Sikkim Manipal University Page No. 159 Research Methodology Unit 11 Age groups Tally marks Below II 20-39 IIII IIII IIII 40-59 IIII IIII IIII Above 59 IIII No. of Responses 2 IIII IIII III 23 15 10 Total 50 Although manual tabulation is simple and easy to construct, it can be tedious, slow and error-prone as responses increase. Computerized tabulation is easy with the help of software packages. The input requirement will be the column and row variables. The software package then computes the number of records in each cell of three row column categories. The most popular package is the Statistical package for Social Science (SPSS). It is an integrated set of programs suitab...
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