103Lect2powerptclassslides

103Lect2powerptclassslides - GLUCOSE OXIDATION IS HIGHLY...

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GLC + 6 O 2 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O GLUCOSE OXIDATION IS HIGHLY EXERGONIC Δ G o = - 2870 kJ/mol
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Thermodynamics vs Kinetics Enzymes provide cells with the ability to exert kinetic control over thermodynamic potential in other words Enzymes tell us what interconversions are kinetically possible- by their presence/absence, activity Enzymes don t change equilibrium conc, just get us there faster Almost all biological interconversions are enzyme-mediated.
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1. Carbohydrates( CHOs=sugars=saccharides ) : Polyhydroxyaldehydes or Polyhydroxyketones or Substances which give these on hydrolysis. Most (not all) have the empirical formula of [CH 2 O] n . Number of Cs in smallest CHO? 3! C O H CX R 1 C O CX CX R 1 R 2 OH HB pg 3
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2. Fischer projection : We use two ways to visualize three dimensional CHOs on a two dimensional piece of paper. One is the Fischer projection. Horizontal lines represent bonds projecting out of the plane of the paper toward us, and vertical lines represent bonds projecting behind the paper with OH groups arranged to the left or right. H HO Fischer projection H HO By convention- Carbon-carbon bonds are vertical. HB pg 3
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Fischer projection http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e3/Fischer_Projection2.png
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H HC OH H HO OH H OH H CH 2 OH CH 2 O H HO OH H OH H CH 2 O D-Fructose= F D-Glucose=GLC an aldose a ketose 3. Aldose or Ketose : Refers to whether a saccharide in its open form contains an aldehyde or ketone carbonyl, respectively. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 HB pg 3 Learn the Numbering convention
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4. Monosaccharides : Carbohydrates that cannot be hydrolyzed to simpler compounds. As they are introduced in class , learn the structures of the following aldose monosaccharides: glyceraldehyde, erythrose, ribose, glucose, mannose, galactose; and the following ketose monosaccharides: dihydroxyacetone, ribulose, xylulose, fructose. HB pg 3
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5. Triose , Tetrose , Pentose, etc. : Refers to the number of carbons in the monosaccharide. Often combined names such as aldohexose, etc. are used. 6. Disaccharides, Oligosaccharides, Polysaccharides, etc. : Refers to the number of monosaccharide units the carbohydrate can be hydrolyzed to. HB pg 3
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7. Stereoisomers , Enantiomers , Diastereomers Stereoisomers are compounds with: same molecular formula and same structure, but, different orientations of their atoms in space. Biological systems can tell the difference between stereoisomers! HB pg 3-4
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Carbohydrates have one or more chiral centers- carbons with 4 different groups attached, giving rise to stereoisomers .
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This note was uploaded on 04/16/2010 for the course BIS 103 taught by Professor Abel during the Spring '08 term at UC Davis.

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103Lect2powerptclassslides - GLUCOSE OXIDATION IS HIGHLY...

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