1) TOTALITARIANISM-total control of society--private and public life--business, family life, labor, youth groups--basic liberties deniedDictatorship, one-party rule.--D., absolute authority--dynamic leader-- demands loyalty, obedience, sacrifice, no questions asked-- symbolizes state---unites people, gives vision, sense of security.--ideology (set of beliefs)--justifies government actions--glorifies stateDepends on technology:Mass communication (radio, loudspeakers) spreads propagandaAdvanced weaponsOrganized violence: force, police terrorize, crush oppositionTarget minorities, political protestors. Scapegoats. U.S.S.R.:1917, revolution (centuries of czars’ oppression)Then civil war, WWI, economic, social turmoilLenin a strong leader, dies in 1924.Stalin, Trotsky vie for power. By 1928, Trotsky exiled, Stalin a dictator. Head of Communisty Party. Wanted to create perfect Communist state. COMMAND ECONOMY—to catch up in industry, military. Controls all business w. FIVE-YEAR-PLAN, agriculture w. collective farms. Used terror and violence to force workers, peasants to accept.Advantage—industry, food production soared.Secret police: planted informers, executed, exiled millions.1934 to 1939—GREAT PURGE—campaign of terror.Even police could be arrested.Used propaganda (biased info), indoctrination of Communist idealsIn schools, factories: posters, loudspeakers.GREAT PURGE: 1934-‘38, campaign of terror. Everyone a suspect, even police. 8 to 13 million killed.
Daily life—women’s roles expand to factories, hospitals.But still expected to bear, raise children.Education: to create skilled workers. But state-controlled. Only means to a better life.End: After WWII, pressure on U.S.S.R. from England, U.S., France. Death of Stalin in 1953, ethnic tensions in expanded U.S.S.R. Destalinization, pressure for more freedoms. HITLERAfter WWI, Germany had severe economic problems--high unemployment and inflation.--monarchy for centuries, little democratic experience. Weimar Republic unstable.•As the crisis deepened, people turned to Adolf Hitler as a strong leader when they had lost faith in democracy.He was a fascist –stressed extreme nationalism, which led to military aggression.Promised to RESTORE NATIONAL PRIDE—which had been hurt by WWI peace treaties. His aggression sparked WWII.The Nazis had special uniforms, and salutes, held mass rallies to inspire loyalty and fear. They targeted Jews as enemies to be the scapegoats for the country’s problems. They used the SS and the Gestapo to frighten people into obedience. The holocaust was a mass slaughter of civilians, especially Jews. Hitler exploited ancient anti-Semitic (anti-Jewish) views in Europe. He claimed the Germans were a master Aryan race and Jews and other minorities were inferior.This racist view made Jews a scapegoat for WWI losses and the economic woes that followed.