-total control of society
--private and public life
--business, family life, labor, youth groups
--basic liberties denied
Dictatorship, one-party rule.
--D., absolute authority
-- demands loyalty, obedience, sacrifice, no questions asked
-- symbolizes state
---unites people, gives vision, sense of security.
--ideology (set of beliefs)
--justifies government actions
Depends on technology:
Mass communication (radio, loudspeakers) spreads propaganda
force, police terrorize, crush opposition
Target minorities, political protestors. Scapegoats
1917, revolution (centuries of czars’ oppression)
Then civil war, WWI, economic, social turmoil
Lenin a strong leader, dies in 1924.
Stalin, Trotsky vie for power. By 1928, Trotsky exiled, Stalin a
dictator. Head of Communisty Party. Wanted to create perfect Communist
COMMAND ECONOMY—to catch up in industry, military.
Controls all business w. FIVE-YEAR-PLAN, agriculture w.
Used terror and violence to force workers, peasants to accept.
Advantage—industry, food production soared.
Secret police: planted informers, executed, exiled millions.
1934 to 1939—GREAT PURGE—campaign of terror.
Even police could be arrested.
Used propaganda (biased info), indoctrination of Communist ideals
In schools, factories: posters, loudspeakers.
1934-‘38, campaign of terror. Everyone a suspect, even
8 to 13 million killed.