World Civ Final Essays - 1 TOTALITARIANISM-total control of society-private and public life-business family life labor youth groups-basic liberties

World Civ Final Essays - 1 TOTALITARIANISM-total control of...

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1) TOTALITARIANISM -total control of society --private and public life --business, family life, labor, youth groups --basic liberties denied Dictatorship, one-party rule. --D., absolute authority --dynamic leader -- demands loyalty, obedience, sacrifice, no questions asked -- symbolizes state ---unites people, gives vision, sense of security. --ideology (set of beliefs) --justifies government actions --glorifies state Depends on technology: Mass communication (radio, loudspeakers) spreads propaganda Advanced weapons Organized violence: force, police terrorize, crush opposition Target minorities, political protestors. Scapegoats . U.S.S.R.: 1917, revolution (centuries of czars’ oppression) Then civil war, WWI, economic, social turmoil Lenin a strong leader, dies in 1924. Stalin, Trotsky vie for power. By 1928, Trotsky exiled, Stalin a dictator. Head of Communisty Party. Wanted to create perfect Communist state. COMMAND ECONOMY—to catch up in industry, military. Controls all business w. FIVE-YEAR-PLAN, agriculture w. collective farms. Used terror and violence to force workers, peasants to accept. Advantage—industry, food production soared. Secret police: planted informers, executed, exiled millions. 1934 to 1939—GREAT PURGE—campaign of terror. Even police could be arrested. Used propaganda (biased info), indoctrination of Communist ideals In schools, factories: posters, loudspeakers. GREAT PURGE: 1934-‘38, campaign of terror. Everyone a suspect, even police. 8 to 13 million killed.
Daily life—women’s roles expand to factories, hospitals. But still expected to bear, raise children. Education: to create skilled workers. But state-controlled. Only means to a better life. End: After WWII, pressure on U.S.S.R. from England, U.S., France. Death of Stalin in 1953, ethnic tensions in expanded U.S.S.R. Destalinization, pressure for more freedoms. HITLER After WWI, Germany had severe economic problems --high unemployment and inflation. --monarchy for centuries, little democratic experience. Weimar Republic unstable. As the crisis deepened, people turned to Adolf Hitler as a strong leader when they had lost faith in democracy. He was a fascist –stressed extreme nationalism, which led to military aggression. Promised to RESTORE NATIONAL PRIDE—which had been hurt by WWI peace treaties. His aggression sparked WWII. The Nazis had special uniforms, and salutes, held mass rallies to inspire loyalty and fear. They targeted Jews as enemies to be the scapegoats for the country’s problems. They used the SS and the Gestapo to frighten people into obedience. The holocaust was a mass slaughter of civilians, especially Jews. Hitler exploited ancient anti-Semitic (anti-Jewish) views in Europe. He claimed the Germans were a master Aryan race and Jews and other minorities were inferior. This racist view made Jews a scapegoat for WWI losses and the economic woes that followed.

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