World Civ Notes for Adam Philosophes

World Civ Notes for Adam Philosophes - branches of science...

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Two English political thinkers: Thomas Hobbes: Wrote Leviathan, 1651. Believed people are naturally selfish, wicked. Governments must keep order or: life would be “nasty, brutish, and short.” Social contract: people give up rights in exchange for law and order. Absolute monarchy necessary because people are selfish, must be controlled. Best government has power of a leviathan (sea monster) John Locke: more positive view of human nature. People learn from experience, improve. People are reasonable, so they can govern themselves . All are born free and equal. Natural rights: life, liberty, and property. Government’s purpose: to protect these natural rights. If government fails, people have right to rebel. Wrote book in 1690. Locke’s idea that government’s power comes from the consent of the people is the basis of modern democracy. Influenced DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE. Philosophes: French social critics of the mid-1700s, peak of Enlightenment. Met in Paris. Believed people could apply reason to all aspects of life (just as Newton had to all
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Unformatted text preview: branches of science). Voltaire: fights intolerance Admires English Mocked Catholicism Fought for freedom of religion, freedom of speech Montesquieu—separation of powers Power should check power: checks and balances No one would get total control of government Rousseau: Champion of Freedom Civilization corrupts man’s natural goodness Only good gov.—freely formed by people and guided by general good will. Wrote the Social Contract Went further than Locke—argued titles of nobility should be abolished. Spread of ideas by the salons, the Encyclopedia, other books, letters, visits, and magazine articles. This flurry of communication then reached middle-class people through newspapers, pamphlets, political songs. They had money to buy books and support the work of artists. Paris salons—social gatherings of philosophers, writers, artists, to discuss ideas and hear performances. Diderot’s Encyclopedia—compiled all the best thinking in a range of fields. ....
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