World War I Outline 2

World War I Outline 2 - STAGE FOR WWI SET BY: I) Rising...

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STAGE FOR WWI SET BY: I) Rising NATIONALISM (deep devotion to country). Can unify a nation, but also cause power struggles between nations. So it was with: Austria-Hungary, Germany, Britain, Russia, Italy, France A. REASONS for NATIONALISTIC RIVALRIES: 1) Competition for Industrial Domination of materials, markets, esp. between Britain (leader of Industrial Revolution) and Germany, with its fastest-growing economy on Continent. 2) Disputes over TERRITORY France—wanted Alsace-Lorraine back from Germany. Lost it in Franco-Prussian War of 1870. Austria-Hungary vs. Russia over control of the Balkans (where ethnic groups like Serbs, Romanians wanted independence) II. IMPERIALISM also set stage. A. Colony race in Asia, Africa (France, Germany both want Morocco, e.g.) III. MILITARISM (glorifying military power, keeping a standing army). Made people feel patriotic, but also made situation volatile. Arms race resulted. All nations had big armies except Britain. Generals ready to mobilize (move troops quickly). IV: RIVAL ALLIANCES: Treaty system meant to keep peace instead leads to war. TRIPLE ALLIANCE: 1882, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy. Initiated by German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck to isolate France. In 1887, Russia joins. But unstable alliance due to rivalries for Balkans. KAISER WILHELM II SHIFTS THE ALLIANCE. 1890--He forces Bismarck to resign. Proud, impulsive, and stubborn, he wants to assert power. Says “I and the army were born for one another.” He lets treaty with Russia expire. Russia forms alliance with France. Now Germany could face war on both its eastern and western fronts. He challenges Britain. Builds navy to compete with Britain’s. Britain responds by increasing navy, forming TRIPLE ENTENTE (alliance) in 1907 with France and Russia. So, in 1907, two sides: TRIPLE ENTENTE (Britain, France, Russia) vs. TRIPLE ALLIANCE (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy). II. The spark that sets off crisis: “POWDER KEG” of the Balkans.
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In Southeast Europe. Long history of ethnic conflict. As Ottoman (Turkish) Empire declined, these groups freed themselves and formed their own countries. Ex.: Bulgaria, Greece, Romania, Serbia. Nationalism is powerful here. Each group wanted to extend its borders. Serbia—wanted to absorb all the Slavs on the peninsula. Russia (which is mostly Slavic) supports this. Austria-Hungary (which fears its own Slav minority population will rebel) is opposed, threatened by Serbia’s growth. 1908—Austria ANNEXES (takes over) Bosnia and Herzegovina (two Balkan provinces with many Slavs). Serbia is outraged. Russia supports Serbia. Austria is supported by Germany. Russia backs down. SHOT RINGS THROUGHOUT EUROPE, SETS MACHINERY OF WAR IN MOTION: June 28, 1914. Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand and wife Sophie assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia, by Garvrilo Princip, a Serb, member of Black Hand (secret society trying to rid Bosnia of Austrian rule) Austria imposes harsh demands on Serbia, refuses to negotiate, declares war. Serbia’s ally, Russia, mobilizes troops to Austrian border.
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This note was uploaded on 04/16/2010 for the course HIST 110 taught by Professor Unknown during the Summer '03 term at Holyoke CC.

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World War I Outline 2 - STAGE FOR WWI SET BY: I) Rising...

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