bio2a03-quiz2-feb2005 - BIOLOGY 2AO3 Quiz it 2 Wednesday,...

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Unformatted text preview: BIOLOGY 2AO3 Quiz it 2 Wednesday, February 16, 2005 Dr. C.M.Wood Dr. G. B- MeClelIand Special Inmuctr'ans: I Answer all of the following 35 (thirty five) multiple choice questions on the optical scan sheet provided- 0 There is only one fully correct answer in each case. I Write your name and student number on the computer scan sheet. 1. In a normal healthy individual, the ventricle never goes into “decomponsation” because a) the heart rate always stays higher than the decompensation point. b) an excess of epinephrine (adrenaline) is always available- eye) the stiff wall of the pericardium prevents the ventricle from being filled too much. d) venous return is regulated by systemic vascular resistance. e) the cardiac action potentials prevent this from happening. 2. When cardiac output increases during strenuous exercise in a healthy but untrained individual, most of the increase can be attributed to I 3) increases in heart rate 1)) decreases in end systolic volume and increases in end diastolic volume c) increases in end systolic volume and decreases in end diastolic volume d) increases in total peripheral resistance. a) increases in blood hematocrit- 3. The most important normal function of the “Frank-Starling" Law of the Heart a) Repartitioning fluid between the plasma and lymph compartments ._. 1)) Matching the left and right cardiac outputs c) Ensuring that ESV never exceeds EDV d) Limiting the heart rate to no more than 240 bpm during exercise. 6) Minimizing the work load of the right ventricle. 4. Assume a resting condition where the heart rate is 70 bpm, the stroke volume is 70 mlfstroke, the and diastolic volume is 100 ml, and the end systolic volume is 30 ml. Which of the following would cause the largest increase in cardiac output? a) a 50% increase in end systolic volume '1- a 50% increase in heart rate of a 50% increase in end diastolic volume (1) a 50% decrease in end diastolic volume e) a 50% decrease in end systolic volume. 5. In the human body, when two major vascular beds are connected in series, this is called a) resistance in parallel b) a two-tier distribution system _c) a reabsorptivc system a portal system ' 'e) a about 6. On a quantitative basis, the portion of the renal tubule that is most important for the reabsorption of H20, Na: and Cl' is the a) Proximal convoluted tubule (bl; Loop of Henle if)" Distal convoluted tubule (1) Renal corpuscle e) Common collecting duct '1'. An ideal substance to use to measure glomerular filtration rate is / | a)" one that is completely cleared from the renal blood flow by a combination x of filtration and secretion b) one that is freely filtered at the glomerulus but not reabsorbed or secreted in the tubule c) one that is neither filtered nor reabsorbed (1) one that is filtered and reabsorbed but not secreted 6) none of the above 8. The three basic processes involved in the formation of urine are: a) filtration, excretion , reabsorption b) filtration, desorption, adsorption filtration, reabsorption, secretion (1) reabsorption, flocculation, excretion e) flocculation, desorption, secretion 9. 10. / 11. / Which of the following does not contribute to the increase in cardiac output that occurs during exercise? a) Increased depth and force of breathing b) Increased secretion of epinephrine (adrenaline) by the adrenal gland c)_ Increased parasympathetic nervous activity to the heart. t’ d) Increased body temperature 6) Massage of veins by skeletal muscle contraction In the lab “A Do-It-Yourself Circulatory System”, there were two compliances in your apparatus. These were a) the syringe and the needle @y the balloon and the open glass column c) the syringe and the outflow valve cl) the balloon and the valves. e) the Y-tube and the open glass column. When primary urine is filtered at the glomerular capillaries, a) it represents a sample of everything in the blood except proteins (or substances bound to proteins) b) it initially is received into the Bowman’s capsule c) it passes through a series of three sieves made 111) of pores in the glomerular endotheljal cells, a mesh of protein fibres in the basement membrane (basal lamina), and slit pores between the fingerlike projections of podocytes. d) all of the above e) none of the above 12 Ifthe plasma concentration of a substance X is .10 mgfml, the urine concentration of X is SO Ingme and the urine flow rate is 100 Inlfhour, what is the clearance of X? a) 5 mini i: a; SEQJ to; b) 0.5 ml/h ' " c) 1000 mlfh “J (in) 500 mlfh ) 100 mini 13 Ifthe renal clearance ratio of a substance X is 0.18, then we can conclude that a) it is net secreted at a rate 180% greater than that of glornerular filtration fb) it is subject to 18% net reabsorption (6) _J it is subject to 82% net reabsorption d) something is wrong because this number is theoretically impossible c) it is handled by the kidney in exactly the same manner as PAHA (para- aminohippuric acid) 14. In the renal tubule cells of the distal convoluted tubule and common collecting duct, the transport of Na+ across the basolateral membranes of the cells from the cytoplasm to interstitial fluid occurs mainly by a) osmosis b) exchange with (11' I _ 9) active transport by Na? KiATPase "f_d)1 diffusion through Na+ channels e) the Starling- Landis mechanism 15. Imagine that you have very high levels of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and very low levels of aldosterone circulating in your blood. Which of the following would best describe your urine production. a) a high urine flow rate with a very low NaCl concentration b) a low urine flow rate with a very high NaCl concentration fic) a very high urine flow rate with a high NaCl concentration 1d) a low urine flow rate with a low NaCl concentration e) a very high urine flow rate with a very low NaCl concentration 16. Over the short term (seconds to minutes), which of the following islare the most important determinants of mean arterial pressure in the systemic circulation? a) cardiovascular control reflexes mediated via the baroreceptors _b_1 the rapid response of the kidney to adjust blood volume ‘x c) readjustment of capillary oncotic pressm'es by active transport of 'r lymph back into the main circulation d) the “Frank-Starling Law of the Heart” e) changes in cardiac contractility 17. The last stages of modification of urine volume and composition occur in (sly the renal pelvis b) the ureters c) the bladder d) the renal medulla e) the common (cortical) collecting duct 18. Which of the following substances would not be filtered at the glomerulus into the primary urine in a normal healthy individual a) inulin b): para—aminohippuric acid (PAHA) ‘ c) angiotensinogen d) Na+ e) glucose 19. Which of the following is false regarding Fick's Law of diffusion: a) the dlfl'lJSiOI‘l of uncharged molecules across a cell membrane occurs at a rate that is influenced by the magnitude of the concentration difference across it. b) the direction of net flux of charged molecules (e.g. ions) that cross cell membranes by diffusion is determined only by the direction of the concentration gradient v 'e) The net flux of an uncharged solute across a cell membrane will equal _ zero, when its concentration is the same on both sides of the membrane. v d) Both A and C (6)",1116 diffusion of molecules across a cell membrane occurs at a rate that is d- / influenced by the surface area of the membrane 20 The primary role(s) of cellular metabolism isfare: consume oxygen delivered by the circulation maintain ATP homeostasis by balancing ATP synthesis and consumption produce heat for the homeostatic regulation of body temperature perform short-term high power output work all of the above Fr?“ no on .n 21 Which of the following statements regarding the transport of molecules across cell membranes is incorrect? - a- both primary and secondary active transport are ultimately dependent _ P upon energy derived from ATP | b. in secondary active- transport systems in which Na+ ions are bound to " " carriers, the actively transported solute always follows Na’ ions (in the same direction) across the membrane / c. in primary active— transport systems the energy from ATP hydrolysis is directly involved in the transport process d. both A and C the terms symport and antiport refer to particular types of carrier or transporter molecules 5‘“ I‘J I~J A reflex arc: - a. 'Is an involuntary, unpremeditated response to a stimulus in / . Can be learned or required / c. Often is altered by learning l d. Is a major mechanism of physiological homeostasis "‘- e. All of the above 23 Which of the following statements concerning regulation of blood flow is false? a Veins are more compliant than arteries. 13. The aorta and other large arteries serve as a pressure reservoir for the “ circulatory system. _ c. Arterioles are small vessels whose resistance to blood flow can be ,__ varied. ' d. Arterioles, capillaries and veins all have valves that allow only one- ' way flow of blood. 6. it‘your blood pressure is 100170 mmHg, your mean arterial blood L pressure is approximately 80 mmHg 24 The total energy stored in the body: \/ 3. energy stored = ingestion — defecation — urination b. energy stored = external heat produced + external work energy stored = energy intake -— (internal heat produced + external l” work) d. none of the above 5 The vessels that display the greatest resistance in the circulatory system are: a. capillary beds b. veins @ arterioles d. pre~capillary sphincters e. venules 26 Which of these following factors would most increase the resistance to blood flow in a blood vessel? Q9) Halving the diameter of the vessel. b) Doubling the diameter of the vessel. e) Halving the length of the vessel. (1) Doubling the length of the vessel. e) Decreasing the hematocrit from 50% to 40%. 27 If there is a decrease in total peripheral resistance, mean arterial pressure can be maintained by: / a. an increase in heart rate v ‘0. an increase in stroke volume c. a decrease in cardiac output both A and B 28 During active hyperemia: a cellular metabolism triggers extrinsic regulation of local blood flow 1). tissue blood flow and metabolism are matched through autonomic nervous system input c. metabolic byproducts acts a paracrine vasodilators to increase local blood flow rd 3 lack of blood flowr increases paracrine factors which cause xDvasodilation of blood vessels 29 Which of the following will n_ot result in vasodilation of arterioles / z§ Epinephrine (adrenaline) acting on B2 adrenergic receptors ". “\b. Epinephrine acting upon a adrenergic receptors c. Atrial natriuretic hormone, secreted by the heart (1. An increase in adenosine 30 A decrease in which of the following would also cause mean arterial pressure to decrease? a. total peripheral resistance b. stroke volume 0. heart rate (El? All of the above 3 The heart is mostly composed of which cell type? (:71: contractile cells E. pavement cells c. pacemaker cells d. conduction fibers e. smooth muscle cells 32 Resting heart rate is set by the pacemaker cells: a that they have the slowest rate of spontaneous action potentials b. with the highest rate of spontaneous action potentials and the actions . of the parasympathetic nervous system %c. of the AV node and the action of the sympathetic nervous system with the highest rate of Spontaneous action potentials and the actions of the sympathetic nervous system 33 Fenestrated capillaries are found in the liver because: a. liver is a major site of waste removal liver is not well vascularized c. liver produces plasma proteins (1. liver produces red blood cells e. none of the above 34 The microcirculation: contains few blood vessels is the major site of nutrient and metabolic byproduct exchange has a large total surface area has a high velocity blood flow @oth B and C 33 Parasympathetic input to the heart by the vagus nerve: a. acts on adrenergic receptors on pacemaker cells to increase heart rate 13} acts on adrenergic receptors on the ventricle to increase contractility “'c'." acts on muscarinic receptors on pacemaker cells to decrease heart rate d. releases the neurotransmitter acetylchclirie :3. both C and D ELF-'9'?” ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2010 for the course BIOLOGY 2a03 taught by Professor Nurse during the Winter '10 term at McMaster University.

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bio2a03-quiz2-feb2005 - BIOLOGY 2AO3 Quiz it 2 Wednesday,...

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