bio2a03-quiz4-mar2005 - BIOLOGY 2AO3 Quiz 4 Monday Dr...

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Unformatted text preview: \ BIOLOGY 2AO3 Quiz # 4 Monday, March 28, 2005 Dr. C .M.Wood Dr. G. B. Meme-"Hand Sg' racial Instructions: I Answer all of the following 35 (thirty five) multiple choice questions on the optical scan sheet provided. c There .is only one fully correct answer in each case. I Write your name" and student number on the computer s'ca'n sheet. Which ofthe following is false? 3) O 3 s? as? the peripheral arterial chemoreceptors ”stimulate ventilation in response to decreases in $5102. the peripheral arterial chutneceptors stimulate ventilation in response to an increase in arterial plasma [H']. the peripheral arterial Chemcireeeptors are intpcirtant in controlling. ventilation during drug- or 'alcohol— induced narcosis. none of the above are false. all of the ohmic are false. If Paco; falls below the normal arterial level of40..5- torr CS]? pH will fall. Pam Will rise in direct compensation the individual will hyperventilate in an attempt to camera the problem. the individual will be in a state of uncompensated respiratory acidosis. none of the above are correct. The two main buffer systems in the blood that minimize changes in the tree [Elk] and [OH'] Concentrations are: .1 a) 15 .. b) (’9 d) the phOSphate and borate "systems. the animonia and phosphate systems. the C02IHC037 "and phosphate systems. the isohydr'ic and isostatic systems. 8) the protein and COZIHC'Og‘ systems. 4. An individual undergoes. a chronic increase in Paco; due to emphysema. The resulting decrease in pHa is eventually corrected. by HCOg' buildup through increased renal HBO; reabsorption..(= renal acid excretion). The Situation of this individual is best described as a) normal. \/ 1)) having Sufl‘ered a respiratory alkalosis. c) having sufi'ered a metabolic acidosis with respiratory compensation. Cd? having suffered a respiratory acidosis with metabolic comp" ensatioIL 6) having suffered a metabolic alkalosis with respiratory compensation. 5. In the moose respiration lab, the rate of 02 consuinption was calculated from" a) the slope of a plot of. volume against time in the absence-of the soda lime packet. _ b) the product ofxnouse weight 2 jar volume indie presence of the soda lime -/ packet. c) the breathing rate of the mouse, adjusted by the R.-Q. meaSurement. d) the difference between slopes of plots of volume against thne in the 6") presence and ahSence' of the soda lime packet. the slope of a plot of volume against time in the presence of the soda lime- packet. ll 7:1. . ll 6. If pKl' is. 6-1 and the-ratio of [H.CQs'] to [[33:62 . a C02] in the blood plasma is 10:1, then 13113 is about a) . b) \/ {e d) e) 7.4. 3.0. 7".1 . 6.8. 7.8. 7. [fan individual sufi'ered an acid-base-disturbanee' due to ECO; loss in diarrhea, rapid acid—base Compensation would likely occur by : increased HC03- generation in meiab'olimn of lactic acid. increased HC03— reabsomtion by the kidney. a suppression of vomiting. hypovemilation. 11an of the above. 8. Which of the following is n_o.t difl’er-ent between the somatic nervous system "and the autonomic nervous system? the conduct-ion velocity of the efferent motor neurons. the neurotransmitter released by the efferent motor neuron which leaves the CNS. 93.69 the type of structure which is innervated by the final efferent motor neuron. d) the potential nature of the information canned to the efi‘ectdr organ e) the degree of conscious, voh'mtary control of the effector organ. 9. A. ganglion is : a) an alternative term for the cell body of the neuron b) the 510er site for neurotransmitter in an axon terminal knob. CE) a dime“: grmrp of neuron cell bodies Which are clustered together. . d) the origin of the adrenal cortex. v 6) none of the above. 10-. The thereon—lumbar nervous system is another name for : a) flie'sen30ry part of the CNS. b.) the motor part: of the C.N._S. x e. the chain of ganglia suspended beside the spinal cord. the parasympathetic nervous system. c) the sympathetic nervous system. 11- Most diseases of the nervous system are : a) pathologies of the intemeutons. b) pathologies of the motor neurons V".- c) pathologies of the afi'er'ent sensory neurons. (1] pathologies of the autonomic nervous system. ® pathologies of the ghal cells. 12. Integration normally occurs at : a) the synapse. b.) the some. "‘33) the mitial Segment. / d) the Nodes of Ranvier. e) the dendrites. 13. Which of the following are not functions normally perfumed by glial cells”? a) they provide homeostatic regulation of the ECJE. around axons. and synapses. b.) they provide nutfient's to and remove wastes from neurons. (1 0) they provide" electrical insulation for axons. d) they carry supplementary action potentials When arterial transmission is interrupted. I ‘3). all of the above are functions nermally performed by glial cells. 14. “G” stands fer / a) current flow. 13) potential difi'erence. q? eonductanCe. resistance. e) capacitance. 15. The anion'which carries most of the negative charge inside a cell is : Q? C11 ; 1; H003“. / c) the recording electrode. .d) of. e) none of the above. 16. In a certain imaginary neuron, the cencentratiOn of K" in the intracellular fluid is 100 mM and the concentration of K+ inthe extracellular fluid is 1 mM. The K+ ion is passively distributed so EM=EK+. This value is : a) + 50_mV. (t? - 120 mV. \/ c: — 70 mV. (1 - 4.0- mV. e) + 20 m-V. 17. Which of the following; are E: about graded petentials? _ a) they are all or none events. they can be conducted over very long distanCes by. deem-mental local current flow. 18. 19. 20. 2'1 . C) a "they result from the opening of voltage— gated Na+ and K” channels; voltage— gated Cl‘ channels are not involved. all of the above are correct. none of the above are correct. IIf'two'EPSP's originate more or less- simultaneously at. two different synapses on the dendrite of a neuron, they will. fig (1) 6) add together by temporal Summatiorl at the initial segment. add together byspatial summation at the initial segment. likely cancel each other out. both generate action potentials none of the above are correct Which of the fellowing factors is the largest contributor to the negative resting membrane potential of about -70 mV in .a typical cell? a) b) C) 6) the high concenti‘atiOn of Na in the E. C. F. the high anion concentration. in the LC ”F the greater conductance of the membrane to K than to Na. the elecn‘ogenic action of Na+ K AIPase which exports more positive charge than it irriports. the greater tendency for CI' to diffuse 1n than for K to diffuse out of the cell The Nemst equilibrium potential predicts 6) the membrane potential which will develop if the assymetrical 1011 concentrations are fixed and the membrane 1s permeable only. to that ion. the membrane potential which will regult from the individual graded potentials resulting from each ion moving across the membrane. the 511111 OfEM ‘1' E19. + ENae' Bill'- the membrane potential necessary to sustain equal. concentrations of a. particular 1011 on both sides of a membrane. the difference between the membrane potential and the product of ESL—"max- E . Ed The distribution of which of the following ions is furthest away from its Nemst equilibrium potentialin a resting exec? a) K“. ./ 22'. ~./ 3) b) c) @D a) 23. 24. 25. C1”. 2 Na‘L'. the question is unfair because" the distribution of K+Vand Na+ are equidistant from the Nemst 'equilihiium potentiaL the Question is unfair, because it depends whether or not the neuron is shielded by an 'oligodendrecyte. A movement of'the membrane potential from-70 mV to —85 [IN is eonectly termed an overaho‘ot-potenfi'al. a depolarization. a repol'ari-zation. a hyperpolafization. a voltage clflnfip; The mt'w'ement of a graded potential from one area to a neighbouring area on a neuron occurs a) by active Na” and K transport. 13) by the local flow of electric current 6) by the diffusion at Na“ and K“. {9 6) very "slowly, .at-least relative to the speed at which action potentials are conducted. in only one direction. lflong—lasting automated graded potentials hold the membrane potential above. the threshold potential for a long pefiod at the initial segment then : the membrane will become permanently depolarized. the membrane will fire multiple action potentials separated by the refractory period. the membrane will fire a single action potential. the membrane will not fire any action potentials. any of the above may occur, depending on” Whether the graded potentials. are E.P.S..P.’s. or I.P._S.P.’s. I In the most recent laboratory exercise on human reflexes and sensor-y receptors, the purpose of putting one hand in 0016 water and one hand in warm water was to a) to constrict (in the cold) or dilate (in the warm) the blood vessels of the hand. 93/. is” 6) to evaluate the relative rates of sensory adaptation ofwarm versus cold receptors. to map the spatial distribution of ”cold. and Warm receptors in the hand. to evaluate the relative conduction velocities of the sensory neurons. responsible for warm detection versus cold detection. to test the Von Frey hypothesis. 26. Which of the following staterooms sheet sphygmom'anometry is correct? a) /b) V e. d) 6) when fully inflated, the compre35ion cuff stops the blood flow to the arm during systole, but not diastole. as. the cuff is gradually deflated, the first disappearance of the tapping noise represents the systolic pressure. as the cuff is gradually deflated, the first appearance of the tapping noise represents the systolic pressure. it is not possible to obtain a measurement of- heart rate by this technique. the noises. heard through the stethoscope as the enffis gradually deflated originate fiorathe sharp closing of the ”atrio —Ventricul'ar valves- 27. In the “do-it-yourselfheart“ lab, the peripheral vascular resistance. was represented by a) the beaker of water. 13. theglass column. \/ ' the rubber'ballo on. \ the hypodermic needle. the one-way valve on'the outflow side of the heart. 2-8. .In a healthy human being at rest, which of the following set of valnes Weilld. represent the Po; and concentration of 02 respectively in arterial blood sampled from the pulmonary vein? a) will Po; = 40 tor-r ; 02 concentration = 50 ml I L blood. Po; = 40 torr ; 02 concentration = 150 ml f L blood. P02: 100 tort ; ()2 Concentration = 200 ml 1 1. blood. Po; = 46 torr ; 02 concentration = 800 ml I L blood none of the above- are Correct. 29. The hormone whose primary function is to control the rate of H20 reabsorption in ”the Common collecting duct is : a) \/ (1) c) d) 6') aldosterone. antidiuretic hormone. angiOIensin IL adrenaline. atrial natriuretic factor. é“ g- n— 1.1 5, o ———————————————— E E g D . .. ‘ 3 Altemyperpolanzahon I: E E ------------- Threshold potential I) E ‘7" Resting Wane potential Examine the portrayal of the action potential above 30. At which point is (in-fl at its highest value? a) ‘\ . as 31. 111 an axon, at which point does the net rate of entry of Na+ ions exceed the net rate of exit of K+ ions, resultingin a depolarization which isisufficient to explosively Open the remaining voltage-gated Nat+ channels? (23 2. ,- b) 4. x/ C) between 4 and 5. d) between 5 and 5. 6) between 6 and 7. 32. Salt‘atory propagation of action potentials a) involvcs decremental local current flow. in) results in non—decrements] conduction of the action potential. ) c') results in a; rapid conduction velocity of the action potentials, because they occur only at. the Nodes of Ranvier, and not in the inter-nodal regiOns. d) all of the above are correct. G) '2 and 3 but not 1 are cerrect. 33. When an action potential arrives at a terminal knob, it activates the release of neurotransmitter by 3) electrical synapses. fl? Opening voltage- gated (3212+ channels thereby allowing Ca2+ influx- c) closing voltage-gated Na+ channels. , d) activating the enzymes which make the neurotransmitter. 1/ 6) creating a positive charge at the pure-synaptic membrane, which pulls the synaptic vesicles towards the membrane and eventually makes them burst through it. 34- A major difference between smaptie transmission from one neuronto another neuron, Versus from a somatic motor. neuron to a skeletal muscle tell is : a) the resulting graded potential is sub-threshold in the former, but sopra— thresheld in the lattfl. ® the nemon-to-nenron synapse is chemical, the neuron—tO—muscle syn-apes is electrical. s) only the neuron-to -musc1e synapse uses acetylehoiine as the neurOtransmitter; nemn-to-neuron synapses always use dopamine or- norepinephfinc. I d) the neuron-to neuron synapse is- unidirectional; the neuron—to-muscle swapse is bidirectional. e) only the neuron—to—musele symapse-involves an enzymatic termination process. 35. Which of the following islare potential fites of neurotranSmitter released into the synaptic cleft? so active re-uptake into the pre-s'ynaptic terminal. / b) diffusion away from the synaptic cleft. / e) degradatiOn by enzymes 0n the post-synaptic. membrane. @7 allofthe above. e) none of the above. ...
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