Unformatted text preview: 1 CHE 461: Process Control
Spring Quarter 2010
School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering
Oregon State University
http://classes.engr.oregonstate.edu/cbee/spring2010/che461
CHE 461:
3 cr. LEC. Mon., Wed. 1111:50am Gleeson Hall Room 200
REC. Fri. 1011:50am Gleeson Hall Room 200 Instructor: Dr. Keith L. Levien, Room 203 Gleeson Hall 7373155
Off. Hrs: 34pm MWF and by appointment, email = [email protected] Grader/TA: Malachi Bunn, [email protected] , Gleeson 008
Off. Hrs: Thursday 911am & Friday 12noon1pm Textbook: Seborg, Edgar and Mellichamp, Process Dynamics & Control, J. Wiley, 2nd
Edition, 2004. ISBN: 0471000779 (cloth). Other Refs: Process Control: Designing Processes and Control Systems for Dynamic
Performance, Marlin, T.E., McGrawHill, 1995.
Process Dynamics, Modeling and Control, Ogunnaike, B. and W. H. Ray,
Oxford Press, 1994.
Process Modeling, Simulation and Control for Chemical Engineers, 2nd Ed.,
W.L. Luyben, W.L., McGrawHill, 1990.
Principles and Practice of Automatic Process Control, Smith, C.A. and A.B.
Corripio, J. Wiley & Sons, 1985.
Chemical Process Control: An Introduction to Theory and Practice,
Stephanopoulos, G., PrenticeHall, 1984. Grading:
8 HWs + any labs
Project & Instr Eval
3 Exams
Final Exam =
=
=
= 20 % HWs due at beginning of class period !
15 Project completion is REQUIRED to pass this course!
40 Friday 16 Apr (Wk 3), 7 May (Wk 6), 28 May (Wk 9)
25
Wed. June 9, 2010, 2 pm3:50pm, Gleeson 200
100 % Homework is collected at the beginning of the class period and "locked up".
One (1) copy of the solution to each HW will be placed in a 3ring binder in the bookcase of
the Gleeson Student Lounge (1st floor "bay" area). Students must NOT remove these
keys – they will not be replaced. 2 COURSE LEARNING OBJECTIVES  At completion of this course, the student will have
demonstrated the ability to:
1) Translate a flowsheet or written description of a process into a block diagram, to
analyze the relationships among a controller gain, valve position and specified value
of the variable to be controlled. (ABET Outcome k) 2) Predict the effect of changing one of the three parameters of an industry standard PID
controller on closed loop behavior and relate controller aggressiveness to values of
those parameters. (ABET Outcome k) 3) Derive the closedloop transfer function models given the individual transfer function
models that are part of a control loop and analyze the stability of the closed loop using
the Routh array, direct substitution method and a Root Locus diagram. (ABET
Outcome k) 4) Apply, compare and contrast several analytical design methods for specifying the
parameters of PID feedback controllers. (ABET Outcome c) 5) Design and tune a single feedback control loop that includes either a feedforward
controller or a cascade controller. (ABET Outcome n) 6) Analyze a MIMO (multiinput/multioutput) system using matrix measures of process
interactions and design/tune a twoloop feedback control structure which utilizes two
PIDs, a cascade controller and a feedforward controller for a 2input/2output process
with moderate interactions. (ABET Outcomes c,n) 3 NOTES ON COURSE ADMINISTRATION
1. Exams are scheduled as shown in the syllabus and last 110 minutes. During an exam you
may use the SEM2 text, class handouts, your HWs and your class notes  but NO
OTHER materials (not allowed = copies of library HW “keys”, old exams, etc) !
It is your responsibility to bring a textbook, a calculator, pencils and paper. If you MUST
miss one of these exams for an emergency situation, please let me know as soon as
possible. If you oversleep or skip an exam you will not have an opportunity to make it up.
If you have a valid (according to me) time conflict and you let me know in advance, there
is the possibility of taking an exam early.
2. Exams are graded by KLL, homework by the TA. If you have questions on the grading of
HW or addition errors to report, try to see the TA first. If you have questions on the
grading of exams or find an addition error, please see me (KLL).
3. On homework assignments you may discuss among yourselves the proper method of
solution, but you must not simply copy another person's solution. When there are parts of
assignments which require use of the computer I expect each student to do their own work,
not copying other people's files! Any instances of dishonesty in any academic work for
this course will be treated according to OSU Academic Regulations Article 15: Honesty in
Academic Work. Link to Statement of Expectations for Student Conduct, i.e., cheating
policies http://oregonstate.edu/admin/stucon/achon.htm 4. All work submitted for a graded evaluation must be done neatly. Homework assignments
must have the "cover" page with the student's name neatly written on the upper right hand
corner. "All written work in this course should follow the conventions of Standard Written
English, which include correct spelling, grammar, punctuation, capitalization, paragraph
structure and sentence construction."  OSU Teaching with Writing  Vol.8,#2, Winter '99.
5. Class attendance is required of each student: homework assignments and handouts are
distributed during class. Copies of most handouts will be available as pdf files on the class
website, but if you miss a class YOU are responsible for obtaining notes from other
students.
6. The course syllabus is provided as a guide to your reading of the textbook material about
subjects discussed in class. You are responsible for at least a preliminary reading of the
material prior to the class times listed. You should not expect that all details of the
material will be presented with examples during the lecture/recitation periods. For
example some points may be made only through homework problems. In that case you are
responsible for working out the example and seeing the result of your analysis !!
WARNING  students CANNOT adequately learn the principles of this class by simply
copying the problem solutions and studying them prior to exams  you must work on the
problems yourself to see the principles and relationships involved. 4 7. MATLAB/SIMULINK software. This software is stateoftheart for process control
design and simulation and is used by engineers in many industries to perform process
control tasks (from control of refineries by Shell Oil, Houston, Texas, to control of CD
optical reader heads by Philips Electronics N.V., Netherlands). This is not the only
package available to aid in these tasks, but it is the most widely used one and others are
very similar in capabilities and somewhat similar in use (interface). By an agreement with
The MathWorks, developers of the software, we are allowed to use it on the OSU campus
and our VPN computers, subject to a maximum number of simultaneous users (200 for
S10), but not allowed to distribute the software for home use. A student version is
available from the bookstore at reasonable ( ~ $100 ) cost. Several good reference books
on MATLAB are available at the OSU book store, including the textbook used for
CHE\BIOE\ENVE 102 = MATLAB  An Introduction with Applications, 3rd. Ed., by
Amos Gilat, John Wiley & Sons, 2008.
8. In a memo dated Dec. 13, 1995 the Office of the Dean of Students recommended the
following to be added to each course syllabus and reviewed the first day of classes:
"Behaviors which are disruptive to the learning environment will not be tolerated, and will be
referred to the Office of the Dean of Students for disciplinary action. Behaviors which create
a hostile, offensive or intimidating environment based on gender, race, ethnicity, color,
religion, age, disability, marital status or sexual orientation will be referred to the Affirmative
Action Office." Web link : http://oregonstate.edu/admin/stucon/index.htm
9. Statement Regarding Students with Disabilities
http://oregonstate.edu/ap/curriculum/policies/S_syllabus.html
"Accommodations are collaborative efforts between students, faculty and Disability Access
Services (DAS). Students with accommodations approved through DAS are responsible for
contacting the faculty member in charge of the course prior to or during the first week of the
term to discuss accommodations. Students who believe they are eligible for accommodations
but who have not yet obtained approval through DAS should contact DAS immediately at
7374098." 5 “Tentative” Schedule for Weeks 12 of CHE461 – S10
Week
1 Date
Mon 29 Mar Wed 31 Mar Fri 2 April
2 Mon 5 April Wed 7 April Fri 9 April Topics
Review of dynamic models, transfer
functions G(s) models, block diagrams,
"identification" and interactions
Closedloop control problems  servo and
regulatory, PID controllers  time domain
concepts
PID controllers  Laplace Domain, block
diagrams for equipment
Laplace Domain analysis of “Smart
Operator” Case of PI controller with firstorder process in 3 block diagram: servo
Laplace and time domain calculations in
servo and regulatory performance – process
output and process input calculations
Chap 11.111.2 Real Loops SEM2 Readings / Assignments
CHE 361: Chaps 18,13
CHE 361 Outline
Review MATLAB/Simulink
Fundamental Feedback Control
Handouts = 2 of them
Chapter 8 SEM2 for PID
equations in time
HW 1 DUE
Chapter 8 SEM2 review
Fund. Feedback Handout 2/2
Rules of Thumb Handout
Chap 9 for "real" equipment
(Ch10 = “later,system design”)
Fig. 11.8 6block diagram 6 Review of Chemical Process Dynamics
I.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F. MODELING EQUATIONS  ODEs for Mass and Energy Balances
Develop equations: rate of accumulation and other rates
Linearization
Operating point: steadystate and deviation variables
Laplace transforms
Concept of a transfer function
Solution of ODE models using numerical methods: Euler, RungeKutta and integration packages linear vs. nonlinear models. The "statespace" formulation for dynamics: state derivatives x = f ( x , u ) nonlinear ≈ A x + B u linear ODEs
outputs y = g ( x ) nonlinear ≈ C x + D d linear combination
II.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
III.
A.
B.
C.
D.
IV.
A. B.
C.
D.
E. PROCESS CHARACTERIZATION
Classical firstorder systems {Kp, τp, θ} and time behavior
Classical secondorder systems {Kp, τ, ζ, θ} underdamped, critically damped and overdamped and
time behavior  overshoot and period of oscillation for underdamped system
Block diagram relationships: Overall transfer function, interacting systems
Concepts of poles and zeros in the complex plane, RHP vs LHP, Im and Re axes. slow vs. fast poles,
"effective" second or first order systems via dominant dynamics or pole/zero "cancellation"
Time delay and the Pade' approximation, leadlag elements
FREQUENCY RESPONSE
G(s) to G(jω) shortcut method for Re + (Im) j to calculate amplitude ratio (AR) and phase angle (φ)
AR and φ equations for common G(s) systems
Asymptotic behavior of AR, φ at low and high frequencies
Physical significance of frequency response
PROCESS IDENTIFICATION / BEHAVIOR
Fit step response data: firstorder plus timedelay
1. 63.2 % Δy' method
2. initial nonzero slope = KM / τ
3. ln ( ysteadystate  y ) vs. t plot with slope of 1/τ
4. inflection point or Sundaresan and Krishnaswamy 2pt fit (35.3 and 85.3 % choices)
Secondorder step response: after effect of time delay is removed
Smith's method
First over secondorder response: nonlinear leastsquares fit with step2g.m MATLAB file
Pulse testing to obtain Bode plot and identification of G(s) model from Bode plot
ODE(s) from poles + zeros + gain or Bode plot ...
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 Winter '08
 Staff
 Gleeson Hall Room, ABET Outcome

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