electrical_current

# electrical_current - Electrical Current Electrical current...

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1 Electrical Current Electrical current consists of moving electrons Conductors such as copper are ﬁlled with movable charge not unlike a cloud of electrons. A net ﬂow of these charges within the conductor constitutes electrical current ﬂow. An external inﬂuence is required to cause the electrons to move through the conductor. This force is usually an applied electric ﬁeld. When the electric ﬁeld pushes against the electron cloud, the entire cloud, acting as one, moves. In this way electrons are caused to ﬂow at the opposite end of the electron cloud. Here is another way to think about current ﬂow. Its the “pipe and ball” analogy for conductors. A conductor is like a pipe full of electrons. If an electron is pushed into one end of the pipe, another electron must fall out at the other end. Think of electron ﬂow through a wire as balls traveling through a pipe, not like an empty pipe that electrons “fall” through. Measuring Current Both water molecules and electrons are small. We don’t measure water ﬂow in molecules per minute but by gallons (many, many molecules) per minute. We measure electron ﬂow in much the same way. Electron ﬂow is measured in Coulombs/sec. One Coulomb (C) is equal to 6.25x10 18 electrons. The term that refers to one Coulomb per second of current ﬂow is the Ampere (A). It is informally referred to as an “Amp”. Thus 1A = 1 C/s of electron ﬂow. To restate, the rate of electron movement that would cause one Coulomb of electrons to move across a plane surface bisecting a wire in one second is called 1 Ampere of electron ﬂow. conductor or wire electron cloud copper nuclei electron or current ﬂow electric ﬁeld pushing in electron or current ﬂow electric ﬁeld pushing in

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electrical_current - Electrical Current Electrical current...

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