lecture-2.1 - Lecture notes: 2.1 June 25, 2009 1 The hyoid...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture notes: 2.1 June 25, 2009 1 The hyoid bone On Tuesday someone mentioned the hyoid bone as part of human speech. It turns out to be a very interesting bone: (1) Hyoid bone: http://people.ucsc.edu/ ~ kirchner/classes/intro/files/hyoid.jpg Part of the evolution to enable speech was the descent of the hyoid bone, allowing us to move the tongue more than any other mammal can. The hyoid is also the only bone in the body thats not connected to any other bone. 2 Consonantal distinctions (2) Classification by place and manner of articulation: a. What is the airstream mechanism? b. Is the airstream ingressive or egressive? c. What is the state of the glottis? d. What is the position of the velum? e. What is the active articulator? f. What is the passive articulator? g. What is the degree and nature of the stricture? (3) The main zones of segment articulation: a. labial b. dental c. alveolar d. palatal e. velar f. uvular g. pharyngeal h. epiglottal i. glottal (4) Places of articulation in finer detail: 1 a. bilabial b. labio-dental c. dental d. alveolar e. retroflex f. palatoalveolar g. palatal h. velar i. uvular j. pharyngeal k. epiglottal 3 Consonants! Q: What distinguishes consonants from vowels? Occlusion (consonants have some, vowels basically dont). Were going to look at consonants and vowels in turn. How consonants are distinguished from each other: The traditional method of consonant classification: We can arrive at a description of a consonant segment adequate enough for most practical purposes by answering seven questions about it (though we must remember that the answers to these questions will certainly not tell us everything about the segment in question). These questions are as follows: (5) Degree of occlusion Location of occlusion Nasality / orality Laryngealization, including: Aspiration Voicing Glottalization Secondary articulations, including 2 Labialization Palatalization Velarization Pharyngealization Airstream mechanism Sonority Review the manner terms that we learned: (6) Manner terms: Stop Fricative Approximant Lateral (approximant) 3.1 Stops Build a list of stops in English: (7) [p, b, t, d, k, g] 3.2 Fricatives Build a list of fricatives in English: (8) [f, v, T , dh , s, z, S , Z ] We distinguish between two types of fricatives: sibilant and non-sibilant fricatives. Sibilants are more noisy; acoustically speaking, they produce a light of high- frequency noise. Some examples of each type in English: (9) a. Sibilant fricatives: sigh, shy zoo, azure b. Non-sibilants: fie, vie thigh, thy If we look at wave forms for the fricatives, we can see this difference pretty dramat- ically. Lets take a look: 3 (10) Voiceless fricatives spectrograms: http://people.ucsc.edu/ ~ kirchner/classes/intro/files/vlfric.jpg We havent looked at spectrograms in class, though you may have seen some in the textbook. They are a record of sound stream, showing disturbance in the air over a span of time. The x-axis is over the span of time (you can see the segments acrossspan of time....
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lecture-2.1 - Lecture notes: 2.1 June 25, 2009 1 The hyoid...

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