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lecture-3.1 - Lecture notes 3.1 1 Announcements Homework...

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Lecture notes: 3.1 June 30, 2009 1 Announcements Homework postponed: Homework 2 will be assigned on Thursday, due next Tuesday. Thanks to Peter, who has put up a version of our textbook cd with correct links and file. You can see it here: http://abcruzww.com/peter/ladefoged/ To log in, use the username “ling50” and the same password used for readings on the course website. 2 Introducing vowels (1) Vowels: heed hid head had HUD hard hawed hot heard chutzpah who’d Consonants are defined by the articulator and place of articulation. Vowels do not close the space in the mouth off in the same way; but they differ from one another by the constriction that does occur. You can think of our vocal tract as a tube. That may seem strange, but it actually does basically work that way. We can see an illustration of how this works for a few vowels: 1
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(2) Vocal tract video: www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nu99KAVnmRA There are three fundamental movements we make to make vowels: (3) Raising the tongue up Moving the tongue forward or back Rounding the lips One thing we notice right away that makes vowels different from consonants is that they are gradient. Consonants are largely discrete in the way we articulate them: a consonant is labial if it is articulated at the lips; otherwise it’s not. Vowels are different: you can squeeze the tube pretty much any way you want. So how do we divide the space in a useful way? We use what’s known as the cardinal vowel system: A series of eight cardinal vowels, evenly spaced around the outside of the possible vowel area. Devised by the British phonetician Daniel Jones. Designed to act as fixed reference points for phoneticians. These symbols designate the extreme ends of what’s possible in vowel articulation, e.g. tongue as far forward as possible [i], etc. None of the cardinal vowels are exactly the same as that of an English vowel. It can happen that a particular language may have a vowel that is virtually identical with a cardinal vowel, or not. The eight cardinal vowels serve as reference points for the description of all vowels. Two of them lie in easily identifiable positions and have sensible articulatory defini- tions: C[ardinal] V[owel] 1 [i] and CV5 [ A ]. In the close front position (unrounded) we produce /i/ In the open front position (unrounded) we produce /a/ 2
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Back open (unrounded): / A / Back close (rounded): /u/ We can show this with mid-sagittal diagrams of these four vowels: (4) /i/: people.ucsc.edu/ ~ kirchner/classes/intro/files/01-i.jpg (5) /a/: people.ucsc.edu/ ~ kirchner/classes/intro/files/02-front-a.jpg (6) / A /: people.ucsc.edu/ ~ kirchner/classes/intro/files/03-back-a.jpg (7) /u/: people.ucsc.edu/ ~ kirchner/classes/intro/files/04-u.jpg We can represent this in a (very stylized) way as a trapezoid for our vowel space.
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