lecture-6.1 - Lecture notes: 6.1 July 9, 2009 1 More...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture notes: 6.1 July 9, 2009 1 More phonology problems 1.1 Kimatuumbi Can the distinction between implosive and plain voiced consonants in Kimatuumbi (Bantu; Tanzania) be predicted by rule? 1 (1) Kimatuumbi implosives: á alaa N ga count ali á ika be out of order äOO mba shoot a gun äU l U ka fly lik UUN gwa storage structure áUU ka leave kjaa N gi sand áO mwaana destroy ki áU la towards Mecca kit UU mbi hill äO l O ja straighten ä una murmur lis EEN g E l E dowry á ila without á alaka luck ä uluja drive fast k OO ndwa dig clay N gaambal E fish species k OáO kwa unfold á w UU mi life á utuka flow ä aala storage in roof áEáEE lu male goat ä undumuka be scared No minimal pairs, or near-minimal pairs. The distribution is fairly clear once we separate the two kinds of voiced stops (plain and implosive): Implosives appear in word-initial position and after vowels. Plain voiced consonants appear exclusively after nasals. Further evidence that this generalization is valid from a morpheme alternation: The first-person-singular form of the verb meaning “I should ” has a nasal conso- nant prefix, different from the infinitive: e.g. äU l U ka to fly N g U l U k E “I should fly.” 1 Data from Odden 2005. 1 There is also a change in the final vowel, with -a in the infinitive and - E in the “should” form. The important observation: The pronunciation of the root for the word for “fly” alternates between [. . . äU l U k. . . ] and [. . . g U l U k. . . ] depending on whether a nasal precedes. (2) More examples: ‘to X’ ‘I should X’ â uumu nduumu ‘continue’ áUU ka mb UU k E ‘leave’ á utuka mbutuk E ‘flow’ á alaa N ga mbalaa N g E ‘count’ ä una N gun E ‘murmur’ äO l O ja N g O l O j E ‘straighten’ äOO mba N g OO mb E ‘shoot a gun’ äU l U ka N g U l U k E ‘fly’ Which one is the basic phoneme? There are two choices: (3) a. We posit the plain voiced obstruents /bdg/ as underlying phonemes, and derive [ áâä ] as their allophonic variants by a rule. b. We posit / áâä / as underlying phonemes, and derive [bdg] by rule. In this case, different from the Setswana [l]˜[d] case, we have a decisive argument for one of the options. We might be inclined to choose the first option /bdg/, but we should make sure we are not just picking the sounds we are more familiar with. Recall the distribution: Implosives appear in word-initial position and after vowels; Plain voiced stops appear exclusively after nasals. 2 With /bgd/ as basic phonemes, we need the following rule: (4) “Voiced plosives become implosives when they follow a vowel, OR when they stand at the beginning of the word.” (This already has a potentially ominous ring: “when . . . OR when. . . ”) Formalization: Let us introduce braces in order to express a choice between A and B....
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This note was uploaded on 04/17/2010 for the course LINGUISTIC 117 taught by Professor Farkas during the Spring '09 term at University of California, Santa Cruz.

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lecture-6.1 - Lecture notes: 6.1 July 9, 2009 1 More...

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