lecture-6.2 - Lecture notes: 6.2 July 9, 2009 1 Intonation...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–4. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Lecture notes: 6.2 July 9, 2009 1 Intonation Intonation in English is used for many purposes. Well look at several of these: (1) Speaker attitude Presupposition Focus Chunking The sentence She works downtown can have a perfectly neutral, ordinary intona- tion. That doesnt tell us anything about the speakers attitude. But by changing the intonation we can indicate suprise, incredulity, disgust ... We can also indicate what is presupposed to a conversation with intonation that is, information that the speaker assumes is known and agreed on by the speaker and hearer. So the sentence Do you want tea or coffee? can be uttered with either of two intonation patterns. One is a neutral intonation that does not presuppose anything to which yes or no would be appropriate answers. Another reading presupposes that the listener wants either tea or coffee, and an an- swer like no would be surprising or awkward. Focus intonation calls attention of the listener to a particular word or larger part of an utterance. This can be connected with indicating speaker attitudes or presuppo- sitions. Chunking refers to the use of intonation to indicate the relationship between poten- tially ambiguous constructions in phrases like French bread and cheese. 1 Read more about intonation at the Prosody on the Web page: www.eptotd.btinternet.co.uk/pow/powin.htm 2 Phonation types Airstream mechanisms. Means of initiating a speech sound three airstream mech- anisms: (2) Lung airflow (pulmonic airflow mechanism) Glottalic airflow Velaric airflow Overview: Pulmonic airstream mechanism: Movement of lung air by the respiratory muscles. Source of most sounds in most languages. We also encounter the pulmonic ingressive sound in some languages. Most often it has a paralinguistic use indicating assent or encouraging another speaker to con- tinue speaking. There is some debate about whether the pulmonic ingressive airstream is ever used as a normal speech sound. It has been claimed to occur in Tsou, an Austronesian language spoken in Taiwan: (3) Tsou ingressives: phonetics.ucla.edu/appendix/languages/tsou/tsou.html But some linguists (including the author of our textbook, who collected these record- ings) doesnt believe that these sounds are ingressive. For obstruents only, two other airstream mechanisms may be used. Glottalic airstream mechanism: Movement of pharynx air by the action of the glottis. 2 An upward movement of the closed glottis moves the air out of the mouth: ejectives: A downward movement of the closed glottis will cause air to be sucked into the mouth: implosives Velaric airstream mechanism: The movement of mouth air by the action of the tongue....
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 04/17/2010 for the course LINGUISTIC 117 taught by Professor Farkas during the Spring '09 term at UCSC.

Page1 / 9

lecture-6.2 - Lecture notes: 6.2 July 9, 2009 1 Intonation...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 4. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online