lecture-9.2 - Lecture notes: 9.2 July 21, 2009 1 Syntax 1.1...

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Unformatted text preview: Lecture notes: 9.2 July 21, 2009 1 Syntax 1.1 Grammaticality (1) The farmer killed the pig. (2) *Farmer the the killed pig. A sentence is grammatical in a language (L) iff: the intuitions of native speakers of L tell them it is a possible sentence of L. Factors that can confound grammaticality: (3) a. Processing load: e.g. The horse raced past the barn fell. Everybody everybody left left. b. Semantic incoherence: e.g. Colourless green ideas sleep furiously. Sally frightened a chunk of granite. c. Context dependency: e.g. Sure, we can. Yeah, he saw it earlier. d. Prescriptive pressure: e.g. There were like 10,000 people at the poetry reading. Prepositions are bad to end sentences with. Identifying syntactic categories: (4) Nouns (N) EXAMPLES: duck, smoke, liger, thought, homelessness: a. take plural morphology (if they are countable) b. can occur with determiners and demonstratives c. can be modified by adjectives (5) Verbs (V) EXAMPLES: sing, be, should, google, believe: a. take tense/agreement morphology b. can occur with (at least) a subject argument (6) Adjectives (A) EXAMPLES: funny, homely, big, increasing, rampant a. can take comparative and superlative morphology b. can modify nouns c. can occur with intensifiers (very, extremely, quite) (7) Prepositions (P) EXAMPLES: of, with, into, before, without: 1 a. take no inflection b. closed class of items c. can occur with NPs (8) Adverbs (Adv) EXAMPLES: quickly, obviously, often, unfortunately, well: a. can modify As, Vs, and other Advs b. cannot modify Ns c. can modify VPs (9) Determiners (Det) EXAMPLES: the, this, that, most, some: a. dont take inflection b. closed class of items c. can occur with Ns (to form NPs) One important distinction between classes: closed and open classes. . . . 1.2 Constituency We assume that the hierarchical construction of language does not stop with mor- phology. We combine morphemes in this hierarchical structure to make words. We also combine words in hierarchical structure to make sentences (or utter- ances ). So a sentence might have a structure like this: (10) You like the blue chicken: 2 S Noun Phrase Verb Phrase Noun Verb Determiner Phrase you like Determiner Adjective Phrase the Adjective Noun Phrase blue Noun chicken Why would we believe something like that? It seems like a lot of work!...
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lecture-9.2 - Lecture notes: 9.2 July 21, 2009 1 Syntax 1.1...

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