LEC 15 CHAP 16 - Lecture 15 Ions as Acids and Bases The...

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TOUPADAKIS Lecture 15 Chapter 16 Lecture 15 Ions as Acids and Bases. The Conjugate Seesaw. Hydrolysis and the pH of Salt Solutions. Molecular Structure and Acid-Base Behavior. Lewis Acids and Bases. Complex Ions. Acid Rain.
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TOUPADAKIS Lecture 15 Chapter 16 Ions as Acids and Bases CH 3 CO 2 - + H 2 O CH 3 CO 2 H + OH - base acid NH 4 + + H 2 O NH 3 + H 3 O + base acid Acid-Base Properties of Salts Strong acid + Strong base Salt (Neutral solution) ex. NaCl Strong acid + Weak base Salt ( Acidic solution) ex. NH 4 Cl Weak acid + Strong base Salt ( Basic solution) ex. NaCN The influence of the stronger partner dominates.
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TOUPADAKIS Lecture 15 Chapter 16 The Conjugate Seesaw NH 4 + + H 2 O NH 3 + H 3 O + [NH 3 ] [H 3 O + ] K a = [NH 4 + ] NH 3 + H 2 O NH 4 + + OH - [NH 4 + ] [OH - ] K b = [NH 3 ] A conjugate acid/base pair: NH 4 + / NH 3
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TOUPADAKIS Lecture 15 Chapter 16 pK a + pK b = 14.00 at 25 o C a and b stands for a conjugate acid-base pair. [NH 3 ][H 3 O + ] [NH 4 + ][OH - ] K a · [NH 4 + ] [NH 3 ] = K b = = K w [H 3 O + ][OH - ] Because: K w = 1.0 · 10 -14 at 25 o C K a · K b = K w The Conjugate Seesaw cont.
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TOUPADAKIS Lecture 15 Chapter 16 Hydrolysis Water (hydro) causing cleavage (lysis) of a covalent bond. Na + + H 2 O(l) Na + (aq) + H 2 O(l) Cl - + H 2 O(l) Cl - (aq) + H 2 O(l) No reaction No reaction Only hydration of the ions, i.e. weak intermolecular attractive forces between the ions and water molecules. No making/breaking of covalent bonds. No formation of additional hydronium or hydroxide ions.
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