manintro - ©5514{UNA— UNIX PROGRAMMER'S MANUAL K...

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Unformatted text preview: ©5514 {UNA— UNIX PROGRAMMER'S MANUAL K. Thompson D. M. Ritchie November 3, 1971 INTRODUCTION This manual gives complete descriptions of all the publicly available features of UNIX. It provides neither a general over— view (see The UNIX Time—sharing System for that) nor details of the implementation of the system (which remain to be disclosed). Within the area it surveys, this manual attempts to be as com~ plete and timely as possible. A conscious decision was made to describe each program in exactly the state it was in at the time its manual section was prepared. In particular, the desire to describe something as it should be, not as it is, was resisted. Inevitably, this means that many sections will soon be out of date. (The rate of change of the system is so great that a dismayingly large number of early sections had to be modified while the rest were being written. The unbounded effort required to stay up-to—date is best indicated by the fact that several of the programs described were written Specifically to aid in preparation of this manual!) This manual is divided into seven sections: I. Commands II. System calls III. Subroutines IV. Special files V. File formats , VI. User-maintained programs VII. Miscellaneous ' ' Commands are programs intended to be invoked directly by the user, in contradistinction to subroutines, which are intended to be called by the user’s programs. Commands generally reside in directory (bin (for bipary programs). This directory is searched automatically by the command line interpreter. Some programs classified as commands are located elsewhere; this fact is indi- cated in the appropriate sections. ‘ System calls are entries into the UNIX supervisor. In assembly language, they are coded with the use of the 0pcode sys a synonym for the trap instruction. 9 The spegial files section discusses the characteristics of each system file which actually refers to an I/O device. The file formats section documents the structure of particular kinds of files; for example, the form of the output of the loader and assembler is given. Excluded are files used by only one com— mand, for example the assembler's intermediate files. User—maintained programs are not considered part of the UNIX sys— tem, and the principal reason for listing them is to indicate their existence without necessarily giving a complete . _ ii _ description. The author should be consulted for information. a The miscellaneous section gathers odds and ends. Each section consists of a number of independent entries of a page or so each. The name of the entry is in the upper right corner of its pages, its preparation date in the upper left. Entries within each section are alphabetized. It was thought better to avoid'page numbers, Since it is hoped that the manual will be updated frequently. All entries have a common format. The name section repeats the entry name and gives a very short description of its purpose. The synopsis summarizes the use of the program being described. A few conventions are used, particularly in the Commands section: Underlined words are considered literals, and are typed just as they appear. Square brackets ([J) around an argument indicate that the argument is Optional. When an argument is given as name it always refers to a file name. '1 IV Ellipses ... are used to show that the previous argument—prototype may be repeated. A final convertion is used by the commandsnthemselves. An argument beginning with a minus sign — is often tak— en to mean some sort of flag argument even if it appears in a position where a file name could appear. Therefore, it is unwise to have files whose names begin with — . The description section discusses in detail the subject at hand. The files section gives the names of files which are built into the program. A see also section gives pointers to related_information. A diagnostics section discusses the diagnostics that may be produced. This section tends to be as terse as the diagnos— tics themselves. The buos section gives known bugs and sometimes deficien- cies. Occasionally also the suggested fix is described. The owner section gives the name of the person or persons to be consulted in case of difficulty. The rule has been that the last one to modify something owns it, so the owner is not necessarily the author. The owner's initials stand for: — iii — K. Thompson D. M. Ritchie jfo J. F. Ossanna R. Morris These three—character names also happen to be UNIX user ID's, so messages may be transmitted by the mail command or, if the addressee is logged in, by write. At the beginning of this document is a table of contents, organ— ized by section and alphabetically within each section. There is also a permuted index derived from the table of contents. Within each index entry, the title of the writeup to which it refers is followed by the appropriate section number in parentheses. This fact is important because there is considerable name duplication among the sections, arising principally from commands which exist only to exercise a particular system call. This manual was prepared using the UNIX text editor ed and the formatting program roff. - ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2010 for the course ARCH Arch 101 taught by Professor Edwardhoe during the Spring '10 term at 카이스트, 한국과학기술원.

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manintro - ©5514{UNA— UNIX PROGRAMMER'S MANUAL K...

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