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10auditoryperiphery_2009

10auditoryperiphery_2009 - condensation rarefaction each...

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condensation rarefaction each sinusoidal wave has a characteristic amplitude and frequency
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Pitch (fundamental frequency) and harmonics (multiples of the fundamental frequency). Just one sinusoid Various frequencies of various amplitudes, all mixed up.
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The grooves and hollows of the pinna act like filters and resonance chambers, altering the spectrum of the sound that reaches the cochlea. For example, some frequencies may be amplified while others are damped. (please do not memorize the various parts of the pinna)
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oval window round window The middle ear acts like an impedance matching device. The impedance (resistance) of the air is small and the impendence of the fluid filled cochlea is large. In order to make sure that this impendence mismatch does not cause too much sound energy to bounce off the ear: A) The ossicles transmit energy from a larger surface (the tympanic membrane) to a smaller one (the oval window). Just think about how much worse it is when someone wearing stiletto heels steps on your toes than when that person has the courtesy to change to sensible shoes before stepping on you. B) The bones (ossicles) of the middle ear, the malleus, incus and stapes, act as levers to increase the force of the movement of the tympanic membrane to the stapes by decreasing the ratio of their oscillation amplitudes.
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