Hirsch_study_guide_09 - Review Sessions 11/01/2009...

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Review Sessions 11/01/2009 06:00 PM 10:00 PM THH 101 11/02/2009 06:00 PM 10:00 PM SGM 101 Hirsch Study Guide_2009 Basal Ganglia Know the direct and indirect pathways in the basal ganglia. Which pathway acts as the accelerator and which as the brake on movements? If you were to see a diagram of a pathway on the exam, would you be able to indicate which structures are inhibitory and which are excitatory. Would you be able to pick out a mistake? Understand how structures can be excited directly, by the actions of an excitatory transmitter and indirectly by means of disinhibition. Loss of dopamine results in which disease, Huntington’s or Parkinson’s? Parkinsons Loss of striatal neurons results in which disease, Huntington’s or Parkinson’s. Huntington’s Why do the symptoms of these diseases reflect the loss of dopamine vs. striatal neurons? What are the actions of D1 and D2 receptors on striatal neurons? D1- excites, D2- Inhibits. What is the movement deficit associated with loss of dopamine? Hypokinesia- slow or diminished movement of body musculature (Bradykinesia in Parkinsons) Does the loss of dopamine affect only one pathway or both? Both? Eye movements What are 6 muscles that move the eye? Which brainstem nuclei innervate the medial and lateral rectus muscles? What is the circuit used to drive eyes to the right or the left? What is the difference between a saccade and smooth pursuit? 1
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Do vergence movements involve conjugate eye movements? What happens to eye movents when the superior colliculus is damaged? What happens when the parietal cortex is damaged. What happens if both structures are damaged. What is the PPRF? Cerebellum Do all the deep nuclei project of the cerebellum through a peduncle? Do all regions of the cerebellum cortex project to a deep nucleus? What happens when I lose my cerebellum? What if I have damage to the left cerebellum but not the right? Which side of the body is most gravely affected? Study guide posted on blackboard Cortical feedback pathway (from the perspective of the left visual cortex) Motor planning, left premotor and motor neocortex left pontine nuclei. right right dentate nucleus left motor thalamus (collaterals of axons going to the thalamus target the red nucleus, but you will not be tested on this detail) left cortex. This pathway is mainly involved with planning and coordination The spinocerebellum (output is via interposed + fastigial nuclei) also participates in the neocortical pathway; its contributions involve motor execution Brainstem (including vestibular) feedback pathways Inferior olive, spinal cord, vestibular nuclei spinocerebellum (cortex & interposed +fastigial nuclei) interposed + fastigial nuclei brainstem including vestibular nuclei and spinal cord; this pathway is involved in motor execution Vestibular nuclei vestibulocerebellum vestibular nuclei; this is largely involved with motor adjustment and balance
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Hirsch_study_guide_09 - Review Sessions 11/01/2009...

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