Hirsch_study_guide_09(2)

Hirsch_study_guide_09(2) - Review Sessions 11/01/2009...

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Review Sessions 11/01/2009 06:00 PM 10:00 PM THH 101 11/02/2009 06:00 PM 10:00 PM SGM 101 Hirsch Study Guide_2009 Basal Ganglia Know the direct and indirect pathways in the basal ganglia. Which pathway acts as the accelerator and which as the brake on movements? Accelerator: Direct Brake: Indirect If you were to see a diagram of a pathway on the exam, would you be able to indicate which structures are inhibitory and which are excitatory. Would you be able to pick out a mistake? Direct= Cortex+Putamen-GP int-AV/PV Thalamus+ Indirect= Cortex+Putamen-GP Ext. –Subthal Nucleus+GP int-AV/PV thalam+ Understand how structures can be excited directly, by the actions of an excitatory transmitter and indirectly by means of disinhibition. Loss of dopamine results in which disease, Huntington’s or Parkinson’s? Parkinsons Loss of striatal neurons results in which disease, Huntington’s or Parkinson’s. Huntingtons Why do the symptoms of these diseases reflect the loss of dopamine vs. striatal neurons? Motor movements reflect What are the actions of D1 and D2 receptors on striatal neurons? Dopamine Excited Direct Pathway Via D1 Receptors Dopamine INHIBITS indirect path via D2 receptors What is the movement deficit associated with loss of dopamine? hypokinesia Does the loss of dopamine affect only one pathway or both? Both Eye movements 1
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Medial Rectus, Superior Rectus, Superior Oblique, Lateral Rectus, Inferior Rectus, Inferior Oblique Which brainstem nuclei innervate the medial and lateral rectus muscles? Medial- Cranial Nerve III Lateral- Cranial Nerve VI What is the circuit used to drive eyes to the right or the left? Medial- III- oculomotor nucleus Lateral-VI- abducens nucleus What is the difference between a saccade and smooth pursuit? Do vergence movements involve conjugate eye movements? Yes, eyes move in opposite directions to focus on a single object What happens to eye movents when the superior colliculus is damaged? Impede ability to make very rapid saccades What happens when the parietal cortex is damaged. IE FEF (frontal eye fields): Impair ability voluntary movements away from a salient stimulus in visual field or movements towards “remembered” positions What happens if both structures are damaged. permanent loss saccades What is the PPRF? Paramedian Pontine Reticular Formation. Starts Saccades. AKA horizontal Gaze Center Cerebellum Do all the deep nuclei project of the cerebellum through a peduncle? I DON'T KNOW Do all regions of the cerebellum cortex project to a deep nucleus? What happens when I lose my cerebellum? What if I have damage to the left cerebellum but not the right? Which side of the body is most gravely affected? Left
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Hirsch_study_guide_09(2) - Review Sessions 11/01/2009...

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