Liman Lecture 11 for BISC 421 reproduction and sex differences_post(2)

Liman Lecture 11 for BISC 421 reproduction and sex differences_post(2)

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Reproduction and sex differences Sex differences in neural circuitry Effect of sex hormones versus sex chromosomes Disorders of genotypic or phenotypic sex Pair bonding
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Sex differences in neural circuitry in the moth Male moths have antenae specialized for detection of female pheromones. Sensory neurons project to the macroglomerular complex which is enlarged in the male. Addition of male antenae to a female early in development causes a macroglomerular complex to form-
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S e x diffe re nc e s  in b e ha vio r due  to  g o na da l ho rm o ne s Arnold Adolph Berthold (1803-1861) showed that removal of the gonads (castration) in juvenile roosters caused a reduction in male- associated behaviors, such as aggression, and that these effects could be reversed by implanting a testes into the body cavity. William Caldwell Young (1899-1965) next showed that a short exposure of a female guinea pig to male gonadal hormones permanently masculinized behaviors.
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Mechanisms of “sexual differentiation” of the brain Sex hormones Indirect effect of sex hormones, which cause development of sexually dimorphic peripheral structures that then mold neural circuits. Direct effect of sex hormone effects on neurons. Effects of differential chromosome content (XX versus XY) acting within neurons .
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Indirect effect of sex hormones on neural development Spinal nucleus of the bulcocavernous – Attrophies in female because muscle fails to develop
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Liman Lecture 11 for BISC 421 reproduction and sex differences_post(2)

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