3AL Lecture 1 - Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular forces...

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Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular forces take place between molecules. An understanding of intermolecular forces is crucial to a chemist’s ability to successfully carry out reactions in the organic chemistry laboratory.
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The Forces Between Neutral Atoms or Molecules Induced Dipole Induced Dipole Dipole Dipole Dipole Induced Dipole
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Induced Dipole Induced Dipole (IDID) Interactions (London Dispersion Force) = polarizability E ID-ID = 3 α 2 I 4r 6 I = ionization potential r = distance between atoms or molecules
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Induced Dipole Induced Dipole Interactions Between Helium Atoms He He δ - δ - δ - δ - δ + δ + δ + δ + Instantaneous Dipole He Induced Dipole He He Interatomic Interaction another He atom δ + δ + δ + δ + δ + δ + δ + δ + δ - δ - δ - δ - δ - δ - δ - δ -
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E ID-ID = 3 α 2 I 4r 6 Boiling Point Differences of the Noble Gases Atom bp(°C) He -269 Ne -246 Ar -186 Kr -152 Xe -107 Rn -62 I (KJ/mol) 2,372 2,081 1,521 1,351 1,170 1,037 (10 -24 cm 3 ) 0.20 0.40 1.64 2.48 4.04 5.30
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IDID Interactions in Molecules C C C C C H H H H H H H H H H H H pentane C C C C C H H H H H H H H H H H H Instantaneous Dipole δ + δ + δ + δ + δ + δ δ δ− δ δ Another pentane molecule Induced Dipole C C C C C H H H H H H H H H H H H C C C C C H H H H H H H H H H H H δ + δ + δ + δ + δ + δ δ δ− δ δ C C C C C H H H H
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