Week 9, Lecture 2, Endocrinology

Week 9, Lecture 2, Endocrinology - Endocrinology Exocrine...

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Endocrinology Exocrine glands – secreted to the outside – sweat, saliva, oils, mucus, earwax, milk, venom – a variety of compounds – a variety of functions Endocrine glands – secreted within the body (hormones) – acts on cells near and far within the body – usually protein or steroid compounds – chemical signals usually for homeostasis Chemical Signals –fourk inds 1. Neurotransmitters - Autonomic nervous system (sympathetic/parasympathetic) - acetylcholine, noradrenalin 2. Paracrine signals - released by individual cells - short distances through interstitial fluid - affects neighbouring cells - inflammatory response (interferon, histamine) 3. Pheromones - released by an organism into the environment - affects the behaviour of another organism - species specific signals ( ants) - coordinate mating behaviour ( insects) - perfumes and after shave??? Fig 35.1 4. Hormones - secreted from ductless glands directly into blood (endocrine) - transported by blood - specific target organs/cells See Fig 35.5 Two types of hormones 1. Steroid hormones lipid soluble, can cross cell membrane direct access to the gene nuclear receptor transduction response Fig 35.3b Two types of hormones 2. Protein hormones lipid insoluble, cannot cross cell membrane surface receptor transduction response Fig 35.3a Second messengers - Receptor activates G protein -Gprote inact ivates adenylyl cyclase - adenylyl cyclase makes cAMP - cAMP carries message to cytoplasm - activates protein kinases - phosphorylation of cytoplasmic proteins brings various effects Fig 8.12 Fig 8.10
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Week 9, Lecture 2, Endocrinology - Endocrinology Exocrine...

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