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Chapter 11 Inner and East Asia

Chapter 11 Inner and East Asia - CHAPTER 11 Inner and...

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CHAPTER 11 Inner and Eastern Asia, 400–1200 I0. The Sui and Tang Empires, 581–755 A0. Reunification Under the Sui and Tang 10. The Sui Empire reunified China and established a government based on Confucianism but heavily influenced by Buddhism. The Sui’s rapid decline and fall may have been due to its having spent large amounts of resources on a number of ambitious construction, canal, irrigation, and military projects. 20. The Tang Empire was established in 618. The Tang state carried out a program of territorial expansion, avoided over-centralization, and combined Turkic influence with Chinese Confucian traditions. B0. Buddhism and the Tang Empire 10. The Tang emperors legitimized their control by using the Buddhist idea that kings are spiritual agents who bring their subjects into a Buddhist realm. Buddhist monasteries were important allies of the early Tang emperors; in return for their assistance, they received tax exemptions, land, and gifts. 20. Mahayana Buddhism was the most important school of Buddhism in Central Asia and East Asia. Mahayana beliefs were flexible, encouraged the adaptation of local deities into a Mahayana pantheon, and encouraged the translation of Buddhist texts into local languages. 30. Buddhism spread through Central and East Asia, following the trade routes that converged on the Tang capital, Chang’an. These trade routes also brought other peoples and cultural influences to Chang’an, making it a cosmopolitan city. C0. To Chang’an by Land and Sea 10. Chang’an was the destination of ambassadors from other states sent to China under the tributary system. The city of Chang’an itself had over a million residents, most of them living outside the city walls. 20. Foreigners in Chang’an lived in special compounds, urban residents in walled, gated residential quarters. Roads and canals, including the Grand Canal, brought people and goods to the city. With Chinese control over South China firmly established, Islamic and Jewish merchants from Western Asia came to China via the Indian Ocean trade routes. 30. Large Chinese commercial ships plied the sea routes to Southeast Asia, carrying large amounts of goods. Bubonic plague was also brought from West Asia to China along the sea routes. D0. Trade and Cultural Exchange 10. Tang China combined Central Asian influences with Chinese culture, bringing polo, grape wine, tea, and spices. In trade, China lost its monopoly on silk, but began to produce its own cotton, tea, and sugar. 20. Tang roads, river transport, and canals facilitated a tremendous growth in trade. Tang China exported far more than it imported, with high quality silks and porcelain being among its most desired products. II0. Rivals for Power in Inner Asia and China, 600–907 A0. The Uigur and Tibetan Empires
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10. In the mid-eighth century, a Turkic group, the Uigurs, built an empire in Central Asia. The Uigurs were known as merchants and scribes, had strong ties to both Islam and China, and developed their own script. The Uigur Empire lasted for about fifty years.
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