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CHC90B~1 - CHAPTER 26 Land Empires in the Age of...

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CHAPTER 26 Land Empires in the Age of Imperialism, 1800–1870 I0. The Ottoman Empire A0. Egypt and the Napoleonic Example, 1798–1840 10. In 1798, Napoleon invaded Egypt and defeated the Mamluk forces he encountered there. Fifteen months later, after a series of military defeats, Napoleon returned to France, seized power, and made himself emperor. 20. His generals had little hope of holding on to power and, in 1801, agreed to withdraw. Muhammad Ali emerged as the victor in the ensuing power struggle. 30. Muhammad Ali used many French practices in effort to build up the new Egyptian state. 40. He established schools to train modern military officers and built factories to supply his new army. 50. In the 1830s his son Ibrahim invaded Syria and started a similar set of reforms there. 60. European military pressure forced Muhammad Ali to withdraw in 1841 to the present day borders of Egypt and Israel. 70. Muhammad Ali remained Egypt's ruler until 1849 and his family held onto power until 1952. B0. Ottoman Reform and the European Model, 1807-1853 10. At the end of the eighteenth century Sultan Selim III introduced reforms to strengthen the military and the central government and to standardize taxation and land tenure. These reforms aroused the opposition of Janissaries, noblemen, and the ulama. 20. Tension between the Sultanate and the Janissaries sparked a Janissary revolt in Serbia in 1805. Serbian peasants helped to defeat the Janissary uprising and went on to make Serbia independent of the Ottoman Empire. 30. Selim suspended his reform program in 1806, too late to prevent a massive military uprising in Istanbul in which Selim was captured and executed before reform forces could retake the capital. 40. The Greeks gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1829. Britain, France, and Russia assisted the Greeks in their struggle for independence and regarded the Greek victory as a triumph of European civilization. 50. Sultan Mahmud II believed that the loss of Greece indicated a profound weakness in Ottoman military and financial organization. Mahmud used popular outrage over the loss of Greece to justify a series of reforms that included the creation of a new army corps, elimination of the Janissaries, and reduction of the political power of the religious elite. Mahmud’s secularizing reform program was further articulated in the Tanzimat (restructuring) reforms initiated by his successor Abdul Mejid in 1839. 60. Military cadets were sent to France and Germany for training, and reform of Ottoman military education became the model for general educational reforms in which foreign subjects were taught, foreign instructors were employed, and
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French became the preferred language in all advanced scientific and professional training.
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