Notes for PSYC 104


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PSYCHOLOGY 104-SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY CHAPTER 1 - Introducing Social Psychology People tend to conform to the beliefs of others. Social Influence- we are all influenced by other people. The effect that the words, actions, or mere presence of other people have on our thoughts, feelings, attitudes or behavior. Social Psychology - The scientific study of the way in which people’s thoughts, feelings and behaviors are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other people. Construal – The way in which people perceive, comprehend, and interpret the social world. Individual Differences The aspects of people’s personalities that make them different from other people. The goal of social psychology is to identify universal properties of human nature that make everyone susceptible to social influence, regardless of social class or culture. Fundamental Attribution Error – The tendency to overestimate the extent to which people’s behavior is due to internal, dispositional factors, and to underestimate the role of situational factors Behaviorism A school of psychology maintaining that to understand human behavior, one need only consider reinforcing properties of environment that is, how positive and negative events in the environment are associated with specific behaviors. Gestalt psychology – A school of psychology stressing importance of studying the subjective way in which an object appears in people’s minds rather than in the objective, physical attributes of the object. Self Esteem – People’s evaluation of their own self worth- that is, the extent to which they view themselves as good, competent, and decent People tend to skew things to have a positive light so that it seems more pleasant to them. However, certain things may be taken the wrong way. Social Cognition – How people think about themselves and the social world; more specifically, how people select, interpret, remember and use social information to make judgments and decisions . CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY – HOW SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGIST DO RESEARCH Hindsight Bias – The tendency for people to exaggerate how much they could have predicted an outcome after knowing that it occurred. Three types of methods are performed: observational method, correlational method, and the experimental method. Observational Method – The technique whereby a researcher observes people and systematically records measurements or impressions of their behavior.
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Drawbacks for this method are that certain kinds of behavior are difficult to observe because they occur only rarely or only in private. Ethnography – The method by which researches attempt to understand a group or a culture by observing It from the inside, without imposing any preconceived notions they might have. Interjudge Reliability
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