ap review

ap review - For Review Chapter 1 1 a Law versus theory A...

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1 For Review – Chapter 1 1. a. Law versus theory: A law is a concise statement or equation that summarizes observed behavior. A theory is a set of hypotheses that gives an overall explanation of some phenomenon. A law summarizes what happens; a theory (or model) attempts to explain why it happens. b. Theory versus experiment: A theory is an explanation of why things behave the way they do, while an experiment is the process of observing that behavior. Theories attempt to explain the results of experiments and are, in turn, tested by further experiments. c. Qualitative versus quantitative: A qualitative observation only describes a quality while a quantitative observation attaches a number to the observation. Some qualitative observations would be: The water was hot to the touch. Mercury was found in the drinking water. Some quantitative observations would be: The temperature of the water was 62 E C. The concentration of mercury in the drinking water was 1.5 ppm. d. Hypothesis versus theory: Both are explanations of experimental observation. A theory is a set of hypotheses that has been tested over time and found to still be valid, with (perhaps) some modifications. 2. No, it is useful whenever a systematic approach of observation and hypothesis testing can be used. 3. a. No b. Yes c. Yes Only statements b and c can be determined from experiment. 4. Volume readings are estimated to one decimal place past the markings on the glassware. The assumed uncertainty is ±1 in the estimated digit. For glassware a, the volume would be estimated to the tenths place since the markings are to the ones place. A sample reading would be 4.2 with an uncertainty of ±0.1. This reading has two significant figures. For glassware b, 10.52 ± 0.01 would be a sample reading and the uncertainty; this reading has four significant figures. For glassware c, 18 ±1 would be a sample reading and the uncertainty, with the reading having two significant figures. 5. Accuracy: How close a measurement or series of measurements are to an accepted or true value. Precision: How close a series of measurements of the same item are to each other. The results, average = 14.91 " 0.03%, are precise (are close to each other) but are not accurate (are not close to the true value). 6. In both sets of rules, the lease precise number determines the number of significant figures in the final result. For multiplication/division, the number of significant figures in the result is the same as the number of significant figures in the least precise number used in the calculation. For addition/subtraction, the result has the same number of decimal places as the least precise number used in the calculation (not necessarily the number with the fewest significant figures).

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2 7. Consider gold with a density of 19.32 g/cm 3 . The two possible ways to express this density as a conversion factor are: 3 cm 1 g 32 . 19 or g 32 . 19 cm 1 3 Use the first conversion factor form when converting from the volume of gold in cm 3 to the mass of gold, and use the second form when converting from mass of gold to volume of gold.
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2010 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Noidea during the Spring '10 term at 東京国際大学.

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ap review - For Review Chapter 1 1 a Law versus theory A...

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