Lecture 10- student

Lecture 10- student - ResearchMethodsin ResearchMethodsin...

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Research Methods in  Research Methods in  Psychology Chapter 4 & 5: Descriptive Methods: Observation and Survey November 9, 2009
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Agenda: Agenda: Announcements Lecture- Chapters 4 & 5 Break Group activity Final project check-in 
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Review: Review: 4 Goals of Research- 1. Prediction Correlational Research 2. Explanation Experimental Methods 3. Application Applied Methods 4. Description Observation, Surveys, Unobtrusive
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Chapter 4: Observation Chapter 4: Observation Researchers cannot observe-  All of a single person’s behaviors All people’s behaviors Researchers can observe samples- Samples  of individuals Samples  of behavior at particular times Samples  of different settings and conditions Goal of samples- Represent the larger population of Behaviors People Settings and conditions
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External Validity: External Validity: Use data from a  sample  to represent the  population Generalize  the findings from sample  population A sample must be representative of the population External validity depends on how  behavior is sampled
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Sampling Behavior: Sampling Behavior: Two methods- 1. Time Sampling 2. Situation Sampling Goal of sampling: to obtain a sample  representative of the population Researchers typically use a combination  of the two
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Sampling Behavior: Sampling Behavior: 1. Time Sampling Choose time intervals for making observations Systematically- scheduled observations Randomly  Used for unpredictable events Not used for event sampling (rare events) Example-  Observing children’s classroom behavior  for 2 hours each day Systematically: 30-minute periods every two hours Randomly: four 30-minute periods randomly  throughout the day
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Sampling Behavior: Sampling Behavior: 1. Situation Sampling Researchers choose different settings,  circumstances, and conditions for  observation Enhances external validity Example: Observe children’s classroom  behavior in five different schools Can combine with time sampling
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Classification of observational  Classification of observational  methods: methods: Intervention by researcher- 1. Observation without intervention 2. Observation with intervention A. Participant Observation B. Structured Observation
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1. Observation  1. Observation  without without  Intervention:  Intervention: Naturalistic observation-  “Real world”- no attempt to change the  situation Use when ethical considerations prevent  experimental manipulation Goals-  Describe “normal” behavior Examine relationships among naturally  occurring variables Establish external validity of laboratory  findings
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2. Observation  2. Observation  with  with  Intervention: Intervention:
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Lecture 10- student - ResearchMethodsin ResearchMethodsin...

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