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Lecture 2- student

Lecture 2- student - ResearchMethodsin ResearchMethodsin...

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Research Methods in  Research Methods in  Psychology Psychology Chapter 2: The Scientific Method Chapter 3: Ethical Issues September 14, 2009
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Agenda: Agenda: Lecture Chapter 2: The Scientific Method In-class activity Break Lecture Chapter 3: Ethical Issues in the Conduct of  Psychological Research
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Chapter 2: Chapter 2: The Scientific Method The Scientific Method Do we always know how people will  behave or think?  Consider the following research questions:
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Psychology Questions Psychology Questions , continued , continued Mothers talk to their younger children  differently than they talk to their older  children. True or false? Few students will confess to ruining a  computer program if they didn’t do it.  True or false? Most individuals will notice if a person  they are talking to is replaced by another  person? True or False
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The Scientific Method: The Scientific Method: A general approach to gaining knowledge about  behavior and mental processes Approaches to gaining knowledge: Nonscientific  (everyday) Scientific General Approach Intuitive Empirical Observation Casual, uncontrolled Systematic, controlled Reporting Biased, subjective Unbiased, objective Concepts Ambiguous Clear Instruments Inaccurate, imprecise Accurate, precise Measurement Not valid or reliable Valid and reliable Hypotheses Untestable Testable Attitude Uncritical, accepting Critical, skeptical
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General Approach: General Approach: Key terms: Illusory Correlation Nonscientific  (everyday) Scientific General Approach Intuitive Empirical
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Observation: Observation: Key Terms: Independent Variable (IV) Dependent Variable (DV) Nonscientific  (everyday) Scientific Observation Casual, uncontrolled Systematic,  controlled
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Observation Observation , continued , continued Independent Variable (IV) The factor that a researcher controls/  manipulates in order to determine its effect on  behavior Has at least two conditions/ levels Experimental (treatment) condition Control condition  Example: The effect of drinking alcohol on  the ability to process complex information  quickly and accurately
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Observation Observation , continued , continued Dependent Variable (DV) Measures of behavior that are used to assess  the effect (if any) of the independent variable Most studies use several dependent variables
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Observation Observation , continued , continued Define the IV and DV in the following research  studies: A psychologist was interested in the effect of food  deprivation on motor activity.  She assigned each  of 60 rats to one of four conditions differing in the  length of time for which the animals were  deprived of food: 0 hours, 8 hours, 16 hours, and  24 hours.  She then measured the amount of time 
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