Chapter 1 copy

Chapter 1 copy - Chapter 1: Introduction to the Atmosphere...

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FACT The U.S has the greatest variety of weather or any country in the world. - Sept 1999: Hurricane Floyd, record evactuation - Jan. 2000: NC Record breaking Snow Storm - Sept 2000: Record Heat and Drought in NC Weather: the state of the atmosphere as a given time and place - constantly changing Climate: the average weather conditions over long periods of time Influenced by the weather: - Agriculture - Economy - Health - Transportation - Resources The Four Spheres of the Earths Environment: 1. Lithosphere: a. Crust, the most important sphere b. Core mantel crust 2. Hydrosphere: a. All water at and near the earths surface (including ocean) b. Continually on the move, evaporating from oceans and back to the sky where it become precipitation c. Clouds- play a vital role in weather and climate process 3. Atmosphere: a. Life giving gaseous envelope (ozone included) b. 99% of the atmosphere is within 20 km of the earths surface 4. Biosphere: a. All that is life sustainable Composition of the Atmosphere: Clean, dry air – proportional Volume of Gases 1. Nitrogen: 78.08% 2. Oxygen: 20.95% 3. Argon: .93%\ 4. CO2: .04% Vertical Structure of the Atmosphere: 1. Troposphere: “Weather Sphere”, the lowest region of the atmosphere a. Heated from the ground up, temp decreases with altitude, pressure decreases with height 2. Stratosphere: Ozone layer a. Temperature increases with altitude, warmer because ozone absorbs UV radiation 3. Mesosphere: Meteorites will burn up and disintegrate a. Temperature decreases with altitude, least explored because accessibility is difficult 4. Thermosphere: Aurora exists a. Temperature increases because sunlight is stronger and is absorbed by nitrogen and oxygen b. No defined upper limit Chapter 2- Solar and Terrestrial Radiation Solar Energy: is not distributed equally over the earth’s surface. The unequal distribution of solar energy is what generates ocean currents ad creates wind, which transports heat from the tropics to the poles in the never ending attempt to reach energy balance. Motion of the Earth: A. Rotation: the spinning of the earth about its axis that produce the daily cycle of daylight and darkness a. Takes 24 hours for one rotation B. Revolution: the Earths movement around the sun a. Takes approximately 365 days Perihelion: the minimum distance to the sun, the sun is the closest to the earth. -
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This note was uploaded on 04/18/2010 for the course MT MT 315 taught by Professor Mckoy during the Spring '10 term at SUNY Maritime.

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Chapter 1 copy - Chapter 1: Introduction to the Atmosphere...

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