Chapter 5 copy

Chapter 5 copy - Chapter 5: - Condensation: o Condensation...

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Chapter 5: - Condensation: o Condensation Properties: Air must be saturated Water vapor requires a surface to condense on Dew forms on or near the ground on things like blades of grass o Condensation Nuclei: microscopic particles that serve as surfaces on which water vapor condenses Important because if they are absent a relative humidity well in excess of 100 percent is necessary to produce cloud droplets o Hydroscopic: condensation nuclei having a high affinity for water such as salt particles o Adiabatic cooling of air: the cooling or warming of air caused when air is allowed to expand or is compressed, not because heat is added or subtracted o Cloud Droplets vs. Rain Droplets Size difference- it takes about a million cloud droplets to form a single raindrop - Clouds o High Clouds: bases above 6000 meters, not precipitation makers Cirrus: detached clouds composed of white delicate icy filaments Cirrostratus: transparent, whitish cloud veil of fibrous or sometimes smooth appearance that may cover much or all of the sky Cirrocumulus: appear as white patches composed of very small cells or ripples o Middle Clouds: occupy heights from 2000 to 6000 meters Altocumulus: form large patches composed of rounded masses or rolls that may or may not merge, have a distinct outline Altostratus: formless layer of grayish clouds covering all or a large portion of the sky o Low Clouds: below 2000 meters Stratus: uniform layer that frequently covers much of the sky and on occasion may produce light precipitation Stratocumulus: when stratus clouds develop a scalloped bottom that appears as long parallel rolls or broken globular patches Nimbostratus: precipitation producer, generally light to moderate but of long duration and widespread. o Clouds of Vertical Development Cumulous: individual masses that develop into vertical domes or towers, the tops of which often resemble cauliflower, form on clear days, apparent to observer because the flat cloud bottoms define it, Cumulonimbus: dark, dense, billowy clouds of vertical extent in the form of huge towers, , top spread out in the shape of an anvil, towers extend 12 kilometers, produce heavy precipitation o Cloud Varieties: Fractus: when stratus or cumulus clouds appear to be broken into smaller pieces Mammatus: when some clouds have rounded protuberances on their bottom surface, associated with stormy weather Lenticular: lens shaped clouds, common in rugged areas, - Fog o Fogs formed by Cooling: Temp. of air falls below dew point close to the surface Radiation Fog: results from radiation cooling of the ground and adjacent air, nighttime, requires clear skies and fairly high relative humidity, if air is calm the fog may be patchy, need wind to be more extensive, thickest in valleys Advection Fog: fog formed when warm moist air is blown over a cool surface and chilled below the dew point, certain amounts of turbulence needed for proper development, winds between
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Chapter 5 copy - Chapter 5: - Condensation: o Condensation...

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