Final Exam Fair Game Sheet

Final Exam Fair Game Sheet - Thinking Geons and...

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Thinking Geons and "impossible figures" Geons- building blocks of visual perception. Impossible figures- geons are in conflict because all of the basic figures don’t match up. Prototype theory of meaning Categorizing objects, where some members of a category are more central than others. We have prototypes (prototype theory of meaning) we have an idea of ‘dog-ness’ in our heads. Idealized forms in our head (templates) -answers questions like: “what category does this item fall under?” -we have idea of the “typical” category member – or prototype Spreading activation -answers questions such as: “how are concepts organized in our minds?” -concepts are networked and can trigger thinking about related concepts Method for searching associative networks, neural, networks, or semantic networks. Spreading activation models account for this phenomenon by assuming that words which are semantically associated with each other are represented in the form of a network and activation spreads through this network from presented words to their associated words in memory. (fan-out effect) Stroop effect and automatization Stroop effect- the interference between automatized and deliberate ways of thinking. Originally involved color naming. Mental rotation and map image-scanning studies Map image-scanning studies showed that mental images are similar to actual pictures in how they represent positions and distance. Mental rotation studies showed that subjects imagined the blocks rotating in their minds until its position matched that of the other form. Change blindness -large changes within a visual scene are undetected by the viewer -change has to coincide with some visual disruption When changes are arranged to occur simultaneously with some kind of extraneous, brief disruption in visual continuity. Occurs where large changes within a visual scene are undetected by the viewer. The change in the scene has to overlap with some visual distraction such as an eye movement or a brief obscuration of the observed scene or image. Attentional blink -momentary lapse in awareness that occurs after a stimulus catches the brain’s attentionThe inability to detect a new target for a short time after the first target is presented. Occurs when a subject detects one target stimulus in a stream of distracters but then fails to detect a second, different target presented. Nature of expertise Displays the variety of domains and human activities to which the study of expertise has been applied, and reflects growing attention on learning and the acquisition of expertise. Algorithms and heuristics -Algorithms- mechanical, repetitive problem solving. Ex. Alphabetizing a list of words -Heuristics- simplified problem solving, “mental shortcuts” Algorithms- a procedure for accomplishing some task which will terminate in a defined end-state. Heuristic- rule of thumb, educated guesses, intuitive judgments, or simply common sense. Shortcut that we take mentally.
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Final Exam Fair Game Sheet - Thinking Geons and...

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