psy midterm fair game sheet

psy midterm fair game sheet - History and Research Methods...

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History and Research Methods Major philosophical quandaries: - mind-body dualism / monism monism- conscious experience is inseparable from the physical brain. physical and mental brain are ‘one’ dualism- the mind is separate from the brain but somehow controls the brain and therefore the rest of the body. physical and mental are different aspects of reality - free will vs. determinism determinism- everything that occurs (including human behavior) has a physical cause free will- humans can deliberately, consciously decide what to do - nature vs. nurture behavior depends on heredity(nature) and environment(nurture) Deductive vs. inductive methods deductive- deriving a conclusion from premises already accepted. General to specific inductive- inferring a general principle from observations. Specific to the general. The way scientists form theories. Qualities of the scientific method - falsifiability of hypotheses theory is well thought out, detailed, and clear so that alternative ideas could be tested against it or disproves it - replicability of findings repeatd studies using the same method consistently give same results - parsimonious explanation we stick with ideas that work and we don’t introduce new assumptions unless we have strong evidence to support them. theories should be simple and logical, not unnecessarily complicated. - devaluation of anecdotal evidence Naturalistic observations (definition) Examination of what many people or nonhuman animals do under natural conditions. Sit and watch Case histories (definition) Description of a single individual, including information on both past experiences and current behavior. Unique or rare individual case Correlational studies Measuring the correlation between two variables without controlling either of them Correlation vs. causation Correlation- any link between two variables Correlation is not related to causation(cause and effect) Experiment (definition) Studies in which the investigator manipulates at least one variable while measuring at least one other variable Experimental and control conditions Dependent, independent variables Dependent- item that is measured to determine how changes in the independent variable affect it. The result Independent- item that an experimenter manipulates to determine how it affects the dependent variable. The change Purpose of descriptive vs. inferential statistics Inferential- statements about large populations based on inferences from small samples Descriptive- mathematical summaries of results, such as measures of the average and the amount of variation Neuroscience Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) - Thrombotic/embolic stroke- blood clot in one of the blood vessels in the brain - Ruptured aneurysms- keeps on pulsing in your brain and eventually pops - Hemorrhagic stroke- develop a leak in the artery Electroencephalography (EEG) Uses electrodes on the scalp to record rapid changes in brain electrical activity Hindbrain w/functions Pons and Medulla - Protective reflexes 
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2010 for the course PSYCH 1 taught by Professor Fridlund during the Fall '08 term at UCSB.

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psy midterm fair game sheet - History and Research Methods...

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