FINAL- Biological Psychology

FINAL- Biological Psychology - Biological Psychology Study...

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Biological Psychology Study Guide: Chapter 3 Neuron: Soma, dendrites, axon A neuron is an individual cell in the nervous system that receives, integrates, and transmits information. The soma , or cell body, contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells. Dendrites are the parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information. The axon is a long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles or glands. Action potential (nerve impulse) An action potential is a very brief shift in a neuron’s electrical charge that travels along an axon. All-or-none law The neural impulse is an all-or-none proposition, like firing a gun. You can’t half fire a gun. The same is true of the neuron’s firing of action potentials. Either the neuron fires or it doesn’t and its action potentials are all the same size. Terminal buttons Terminal buttons are small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters. Synapse A synapse is a junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another. Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters are chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another. Synaptic transmission (Fig. 3.4) There are 5 steps involved in synaptic transmission: 1) synthesis and storage 2) release 3) binding 4) inactivation or removal 5) reuptake of neurotransmitters Dopamine and behavior Dopamine is an agonist which contributes to control of voluntary movement and pleasurable emotions. Decreased levels of dopamine are associated with Parkinson’s disease. Over-activity at dopamine synapses are associated with schizophrenia. Cocaine and amphetamines elevate activity at dopamine synapses.
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FINAL- Biological Psychology - Biological Psychology Study...

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