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Full Final Study Guide part 2

Full Final Study Guide part 2 - 1 PSYCHOLOGY 101 SECTION 4...

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1 PSYCHOLOGY 101 – SECTION 4 FINAL EXAM – FALL 2009 Terms and Concepts Review Note: There are 5 pages Things to KNOW ABOUT on the New Material (50 Questions) Personality (Chapter 11) Definition of personality : refers to an individual’s unique collection of consistent behavioral traits Personality traits : a durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations *Biology and personality (Nature) : *Culture and personality : The five-factor model: OCEAN : McCrae and Costa maintain that most personality traits are derived from just five higher-order traits (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism) *Personality testing : Extraversion (surgency) : characterized as outgoing, sociable, upbeat, friendly, assertive, and gregarious Neuroticism (emotionality) : tend to be anxious, hostile, self-conscious, insecure, and vulnerable Openness : associated with curiosity, flexibility, vivid fantasy, imaginativeness, artistic sensibility, and unconventional attitudes Conscientiousness : tend to be diligent, disciplined, well-organized, punctual, and dependable Agreeableness : tend to be sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, modest, and straightforward Factor analysis : correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely clusters of variables
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2 Self-report inventories : personality tests that ask individuals to answer a series of questions about their characteristic behavior The MMPI : the most widely used self-report inventory; measures 10 personality traits that, when manifested to an extreme degree, are thought to be symptoms of disorders MMPI profiles : certain score profiles are indicative of specific disorders Projective tests (Rorschach; TAT) : ask participants to respond to vague, ambiguous stimuli in ways that may reveal the subjects’ needs, feelings, and personality traits; Rorschach consists of ten ink blots; TAT is a series of pictures of simple scenes where subjects tell a story *Grand theories of personality : Psychoanalytic theory : attempts to explain personality, motivation, and psychological disorders by focusing on the influence of early childhood experiences, on unconscious motives and conflicts, and on the methods people use to cope with their sexual and aggressive urges *The topographic model of personality : *The structural model of personality : The id and its characteristics : the primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle and primary-process thinking; houses raw biological urges (eat, sleep, copulate) The pleasure principle : demands immediate gratification of its urges Primary process thinking : primitive, illogical, irrational, and fantasy-oriented thoughts The ego and its characteristics : the decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle and secondary-process thinking; mediates between id and external social world The reality principle : seeks to delay gratification of the id’s urges until appropriate outlets
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Full Final Study Guide part 2 - 1 PSYCHOLOGY 101 SECTION 4...

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