Psychology Chapter 3

Psychology Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 Neuron: Soma, dendrites,...

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Chapter 3 Neuron: Soma, dendrites, axon A neuron is an indvidual cell in the nervous system that receives, integrates, and transmits information. The soma , or cell body, contains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cells. Dendrites are the parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information. The axon is a long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles or glands. Resting potential The resting potential of a neuron is its stable, negative charge when the cell is inactive. Action potential (nerve impulse) An action potential is a very brief shift in a neuron’s electrical charge that travels along an axon. All-or-none law The neural impulse is an all-or-none proposition, like firing a gun. You can’t half fire a gun. The same is true of the neuron’s firing of action potentials. Either the neuron fires or it doesn’t and its action potentials are all the same size. Terminal buttons Terminal buttons are small knobs that secrete chemicals called neurotransmitters. Synapse A synapse is a junction where information is transmitted from one neuron to another. Neurotransmitters Neurotransmitters are chemicals that transmit information from one neuron to another. Synaptic transmission (Fig. 3.4) There are 5 steps involved in synaptic transmission: 1) synthesis and storage 2) release 3) binding 4) inactivation or removal 5) reuptake of neurotransmitters Reuptake Reuptake is a process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane.
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Chapter 3 Agonists An agonist is a chemical that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter. Antagonists An antagonist is a chemical that opposes the action of a neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine and behavior Acetylcholine is a transmitter found throughout the nervous system. It is the only transmitter between motor neurons and voluntary muscles. It may be influenced by other chemicals in the brain. Dopamine and behavior
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2010 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Loeb during the Fall '08 term at UNC.

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Psychology Chapter 3 - Chapter 3 Neuron: Soma, dendrites,...

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