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Psychology Chapter 7

Psychology Chapter 7 - Chapter 7 Study Guide Cognition and...

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Chapter 7 Study Guide Cognition and Cognitive Perspective Information-Processing Implicit vs. Explicit Memory Implicit memory is stored without any effort. Explicit uses effort, and it can be divided into two types: procedural and declarative. Procedural Memory The procedural memory system houses memory for actions, skills, conditioned responses, and emotional memories It contains memories of how to execute actions. Declarative Memory The declarative memory system handles factual information. It contains recollections of words, definitions, names, dates, faces, events, concepts, and ideas. Semantic Memory The semantic memory system contains general knowledge that is not tied to the time when the information was learned. This memory might be unlimited. Episodic Memory The episodic memory system is made up of chronological, or temporally dated, recollections of personal experiences. It is a record of things you’ve done, seen, and heard. It is believed to be limited to between 3 and 5000 episodes from one’s life. Encoding Encoding involves forming a memory code. It usually requires attention. Storage Storage involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time. Memory is divided into three different stores: sensory, short-term memory and long-term memory. Retrieval Retrieval involves recovering information from memory stores. Attention and Encoding Attention involves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events. Attention is selection of input.
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Chapter 7 Study Guide Levels of Processing Theory Levels of Process Theory proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer-lasting memory codes. In other words, the more you focus on something and give it meaning, the more likely you are to remember it. Structural Encoding Structural encoding is relatively shallow processing that emphasizes the physical structure of the stimulus. Phonemic Encoding Phonemic encoding involves naming or saying (perhaps silently) the words. Semantic Encoding Semantic encoding emphasizes the meaning of verbal input. Semantic encoding involves thinking about the objects and actions the words represent. Encoding Retrieval Cues Retrieval cues are stimuli that help gain access to memories, such as hints, related information, or partial recollections. Enriching Encoding: Elaboration Elaboration is linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding. For example, you read that phobias are often caused by classical conditioning, and you apply this idea to your own fear of spiders. In this engaging in elaboration, you are creating additional associations to help remember information. Effects of Examples on Retention Palmere et al. manipulated the number of examples provided to illustrate the main idea of various paragraphs. As the number of examples increased from none to three, so did participants’ retention of the main ideas. These results are consistent with the notion that elaboration enhances retention.
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