Psychology Chapter 9 Part 2

Psychology Chapter 9 Part 2 - Chapter 9 Part 2 Motives...

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Chapter 9 Part 2 Motives Motives are the needs, wants, interests, and desires that propel people in certain directions. In short, motivation involves goal-directed behavior. Drive theories Drive theories hold that motivation is based in an internal state of tension that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension. Organisms seek to maintain homeostasis, or a state of equilibrium or stability. Drive theories cannot explain all motivation but they have been very influential in modern psychology. Arousal theory of motives Opponent–process theory of motives Homeostatic regulation theory Homeostasis is a state of physiological equilibrium. The body maintains homeostasis in various ways. Negative feedback loop Incentive theories Incentive theories propose that external stimuli regulate motivational states. An incentive is an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavior. Evolutionary theories Evolutionary theories hold that natural selection favors behaviors that maximize reproductive success. They explain affiliation, achievement, dominance, aggression, and sex drive in terms of adaptive value. Biological regulation of hunger The experience of hunger is controlled in the brain- specifically, in two centers located in the hypothalamus. Role of the hypothalamus The experience of hunger is controlled in two centers located in the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus is a tiny structure involved in the regulation of a variety of biological needs related to survive. Obesity rates
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Chapter 9 Part 2 Obesity: operationalized as BMI greater than or equal to 30, or about 30lbs overweight for someone who is 5’4” tall. Obesity rates have increased dramatically over the last 30 years. Environmental factors and hunger Three key environmental factors are the availability and palatability of food, learned preferences and habits, and stress. Palatibility: the better food tastes, the more people consume. Quantity available: people tend to consume what is put in front of them. Variety: humans and animals increase their consumption when there is a greater variety of food available. Masters and Johnson
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2010 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Loeb during the Fall '08 term at UNC.

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Psychology Chapter 9 Part 2 - Chapter 9 Part 2 Motives...

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