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Psychology Chapter 12

Psychology Chapter 12 - Chapter 12 Modern...

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Chapter 12 Modern psycho-physiological theories of emotion Biopsychosocial model The biopsychosocial model holds that physical illness is caused by a complex interaction of biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors. Health psychology Health psychology is concerned with how psychosocial factors relate to the promotion and maintenance of health and with the causation, prevention, and treatment of illness. A definition of stress Stress refers to any circumstances that threaten or are perceived to threaten one’s well-being and tax one’s coping ability. Appraisal and stress A number of studies have shown that anxious, neurotic people report more stress than others, as do people who are relatively unhappy. Thus, stress lies in the eye of the beholder. People’s appraisals of stressful events are highly subjective. Frustration Frustration is experienced whenever the pursuit of some goal is thwarted. In other words, you experience frustration when you want something and you can’t have it. Conflict Conflict occurs when two or more incompatible motivations or behavioral impulses compete for expression. Conflicts come in three types: approach- approach, avoidance-avoidance, and approach-avoidance. Approach-approach conflict In the approach-approach conflict a choice must be made between two attractive goals. Avoidance-avoidance conflict In avoidance-avoidance conflict a choice must be made between two unattractive goals. Approach-avoidance conflict In approach-avoidance conflict a choice must be made about whether to pursue a single goal that has both attractive and unattractive aspects. This type of conflict often produces vacillation, where you go back and forth, beset by indecision. Page 1 of 6
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Chapter 12 Life changes Life changes are any noticeable alterations in one’s living circumstances that require readjustment. Based on this theory, Holmes and Rahe developed the Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS) to measure life change as a form of stress. Pressure Pressure involves expectations or demands that one behave in a certain way. People are expected to perform, or execute tasks and responsibilities quickly, efficiently, and successful. People are pressured to conform to others’ expectations often. Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SSRS) The Social Readjustment Rating Scale measures life change as a form of stress. It assigns numerical values to 43 major life events. These values are supposed to reflect the magnitude of the readjustment required by each change. The SRRS has shown that people with higher scores tend to be more vulnerable to many kinds of physical illness and to many types of psychological problems as well.
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Psychology Chapter 12 - Chapter 12 Modern...

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