Ions being tested for: Na+, K+, NH4+, Cl-, SO4 2-, HXO4 2-, NO3-, OH-
IDescribe sample in terms of phase, color, odor, shape (if crystalline structure), does it appear to be a
IIFlame Test: Heat wire loop, then dip in concentrated (16M) HONO2 solution, then rinse with
deionized water, then reheat loop to check flame color, and continue until wire no longer colors flame.
At this point, dip the loop in water, and then in your unknown substance. Place the loop containing the
unknown in the flame.
IIIIf the flame turns bright yellow(orange), the unknown contains Na+, and possibly K+ and NH4+.
IVIf the flame turns purple, the substance contains K+, and possibly NH4, but not Na+
VIf the flame does not change color, the substance cannot contain K+ or Na+, but may contain NH4+.
VITest for NH4+/Litmus Test
VIIAdd solution of (1-6M) NaOH to the unknown solid.
VIIISuspend damp (with deionized water) red litmus paper over the solution. If NH4+ is present, the
reaction with OH- will produce NH3 gas, which will turn the litmus paper blue.
IXSave solution for further tests