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Unformatted text preview: O C Notes Aldehydes and Ketones The major similarity between an aldehyde and a ketone is the carbonyl group. A carbonyl group is a carbon atom doubly bonded to an oxygen atom. C O Both molecules have a carbonyl group, the difference the number of carbons bonded to the carbonyl carbon. An aldehyde will have none or one and a ketone will have two carbons. All aldehydes, except formaldehyde, will have a hydrogen atom on one side of the carbonyl carbon and at least on carbon on the other side. C O H R All ketones have a carbon on each side of the carbonyl carbon. C O R R Remember that the ‘R’ symbolizes any carbon side-chain, from one to a million carbons. Basically, what it comes down to is that in an aldehyde the carbonyl group is on the terminal (last) carbon and the ketones carbonyl group is not. These compounds are found at the most fundamental levels of biological existence. Glucose is the single most important molecule in providing energy at a cellular level. Without glucose you would die in seconds. Glucose, the most important carbohydrate, not only has a carbonyl group but is an aldehyde. Another common carbohydrate is fructose, fruit sugar, this compound is a ketone. These compounds are more reactive than your typical alkane, the question you may ask is why? The answer lies in the location of the electrons in the carbonyl group. First, look at the hybridization of a carbonyl carbon. A carbon connected to three other molecules must be doubly bonded to one of those molecules. For a double bond to form p-orbitals must overlap over a sigma bond. The hybridization loses one p-orbital, leaving the carbon as sp 2 , allowing the formation of the other bond with the free p-orbital, forming a pi-bond....
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This note was uploaded on 04/19/2010 for the course CHEMSITRY CH 106 taught by Professor Kovacich during the Spring '10 term at Portland CC.
- Spring '10