Notes Carbohydrates - Notes Carbohydrates Introduction:...

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Notes Carbohydrates Introduction: Carbohydrates are normally the first classification of compounds to be discussed which fall within the realm of Biochemistry. All biological systems are run on chemical reactions: some are easy to see, such as the iron ion needed to hold oxygen in red blood cells. The positively charged iron attracts the lone pairs of electrons on the oxygen molecule. HCl in the stomach breaks down many large molecules allowing the small intestines digest more manageable pieces. The three main classes of molecules metabolized by our bodies: 1. Carbohydrates (sugars) 2. Lipids (fats) 3. Proteins (amino acids) Carbohydrates are defined as sugars and their derivatives. Animals (such as humans) break down carbohydrates during the process of metabolism to release energy. For example, the chemical metabolism of the sugar glucose is shown below: glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water + energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + Energy Animals obtain carbohydrates by eating foods that contain them, for example potatoes, rice, breads, etc. These carbohydrates are manufactured by plants during the process of photosynthesis. Plants harvest energy from sunlight to run the reaction described above in reverse: 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + energy (from sunlight) C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 A potato, for example, is primarily a chemical storage system containing glucose molecules manufactured during photosynthesis. In a potato, however, those glucose molecules are bound together in a long chain. As it turns out, there are two types of carbohydrates, the simple sugars and those carbohydrates that are made of long chains of sugars - the complex carbohydrates. The simplest carbohydrates are the monosaccharide , a single unit simple sugar. The most common monosaccharide is glucose , and this is the most important one for living organisms. Metabolism: Processes require energy. The term metabolism is associated with energy. This is just one aspect of metabolism. Metabolism more specifically refers to a sequence of chemical reactions used to produce one or more products or accomplished one or more processes. Returning to energy, per gram fats provide the most energy, carbohydrates provide the next most and proteins provide the least energy. The energy of carbohydrates is the most quickly utilized. Think about a 4 year old after sneaking into their Halloween candy bag. They are full of energy!
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Structure of Carbohydrates: Lets break down the word carbohydrate. Carbo = carbon and hydrate = water leading one to believe carbohydrates are hydrates of carbon. Remember a hydrate is a compound which has water loosely attached. An example would be FeCl 3 6 H 2 O. This is iron(III) chloride hexahydrate. Each FeCl 3 salt molecule has absorbed 6 water molecules. These are not chemically bound and can be removed by heating leaving FeCl 3 and H 2 O. Since the chemical formulas are unchanged there has been no chemical reaction, it has undergone a physical process. C
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Notes Carbohydrates - Notes Carbohydrates Introduction:...

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