#2-test-notes - HIST-2111 Test 2 Colonies were disunited...

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HIST-2111 – Test 2 Colonies were disunited and autonomous. 6 Factors brought them together (1607-1776) 1. Relationship with England Originally let the colonies do whatever – but they were preoccupied with their civil wars. (Puritans ruled until 1660). First goal of colonies: to expand Mother Country. They produced a profitable consumer market. Monarchy was restored in 1660 and they want to exert some control over colonies. “Mercantilism,” the opposite of free trade, is established and it only allows British shipping. Navigation Acts (1660): all trade must be conducted by English/American ships and ¾ of crew must be English/American. Border trade collected levies and dues. o Americans couldn’t compete with England manufacturers. o Not well enforced. Officials could be bribed. o Not that burdensome for 100 years. o Smuggling became a way of life – created unity between colonies. 2. Rise in Population 1770: 250,000 || 1775: 2.5 million people. Huge, rapid population growth. Also territorial expansion. Trading up and down the coast and amassing wealth. Family connections expanding b/c of marriage. Trade was also increasing with England (later accounted for 1/3 of all England’s trade). 3. Politics Strong ties with English rights. 1619 – Self government is established in Virginia. 1775 – 8 of 13 colonies had governors (royal, appointed). All colonies had 2 house legislators (lower house determined governors’ salary). People had the have land to vote. o People were getting exposure to ruling themselves. 4. Religion They all hated Catholics. Most were influenced by John Calvin – Calvinists. Late 1600-1700 religious interest declines in all of Colonial America. Prestige with being a religious leader wanes. Secularism increase. (The Enlightenment). Puritans had to change their requirements for church membership. o The Great Awakening The churches changed their approach – revivals! Jonathan Edwards – “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.” A great revivalist. Greatest figure: George Whitfield. o Preacher from England. Started a series of revivals. o Started in Philadelphia (a very secular city). People started getting involved in religion and divisions decrease. (Except for Old Lights/New Lights) 5. Press 1770 – Only handful of presses. 1775 – Almost every town had newspaper printing (usually 1 sheet a month). o Colonies loved political pamphlets. o Enjoyed free speech (as long as what they wrote was true). o Ideas get around and communication increases between colonies.
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6. French (biggest factor) Settled in Quebec and Louisiana. 1.5 million English settlers, compared to 60,000 French. They were fur traders. Started haphazard joint-stock companies. Tried to model their settlements after the Spanish.
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