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#3-test-notes - Test 3 HIST-2111 Why did the U.S expand so...

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Test 3 – HIST-2111 Why did the U.S. expand so dramatically between 1800-1860? In 1800, land in USA was up to Mississippi. Eastern land still largely unpopulated, but there was an innate restlessness. They couldn’t move until after the Revolution and when the British were finally out of the way after the War of 1812. 1803 – Louisiana purchase from France – doubles land claims. President had no constitutional authority to buy, but such a good deal he sends it to congress and they approve the treaty. 1846-48 – Mexican-American War. We created an imaginary war and took half of Mexico. Starts with James Polk acquiring Northwest Territory (Britain) and then negotiates for California – Mexico denies him and he sends troops to Rio Grande. Troops stay for awhile, then Mexican troops get uneasy and attack US troops on US soil – this gives us cause to start war. General Scott takes forces and conquers Mexico City. They give up – give us rest of what is the USA today. How did the U.S. keep it together? Dramatic improvements in transportation: o Improved roads (turnpikes) o Canals Erie Canal – 1825 – caught everyone’s attention – 363 miles long. o Railroads First one in 1820s (same time as canals). Could move much faster than water way later on. o Steamboats Only on large rivers – could go upstream. Very dangerous because boilers could explode. Industrial Revolution (early 1800s) Up until 1800, work was done by people or animals. After 1800, machines are employed by new types of power (i.e., steam). Origins: England and its improvements in agriculture advances. Steam engines, production of cotton thread (later cloth). They tried to keep their secrets, but Samuel Slater, who worked in a British textile factory, came to R.I. and started the first textile factory in America by memory. (12 employs). Lowell Mills in Massachusetts was seen as a model factory – different from the dark/inhumane environment typically seen. They figured that the main source of people underemployed were young unmarried women. They set up dormitories and had their own newspaper. Long hours, very demanding. 1837 crisis causes owners to drop their wages – the women form unions and demand their old wages. The mill instead hires cheap immigrant labor as a substitution. Not a large number of factories in North – still a lot of farms. Development of the Old South Heavily impacted by the Industrial Revolution. They stayed agricultural, but demand for cotton went up considerably. North starts getting into cotton textile production and the South gets the Cotton Gin (Eli Whitney). It processes cotton much faster by getting all the seeds out by machine. Cotton was not a major crop until the invention of the Cotton Gin. Production expands rapidly – leads to increased demand for slaves.
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Civil War Pov: Northern: war of rebellion. Against southern barbarism. Felt threatened by the south. South: felt north was trying to stir up trouble.
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#3-test-notes - Test 3 HIST-2111 Why did the U.S expand so...

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