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1_testnotes - Europe Since Renaissance Lecture 1.1 Study of...

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Europe Since Renaissance Lecture 1.1 Study of Western Culture as it rose from the Middle-Ages. Renaissance “A Rebirth.” o Old ways of thinking are born again. o Classical thinking (Greek, Roman ideas) o Of the Ancient World o Language (Latin, Ancient Greek, Hebrew) When: 1400s Where: Started in Italy; spread throughout Europe. Jacob Burkhart (1860) Coined “The Renaissance.” A rebirth of secular matters: o Love o Politics o War Humanism (sometimes called secular humanism). Said the renaissance was the rebirth of classical world Man is special o He is the measure of all things. Classical Renaissance Man Pico (1463-1494) Wrote “Oration of the Dignity of Man” that addressed chain of being (God- Angels=Man-Animals) Linguist Believed chain of being was not fixed (like everyone believed at the time). Pico has man rebelling in the chain of being. Man could descend to lower forms of life, or rise to higher forms. Pico put words in God’s mouth. Believed man is a higher divinity because of free-will , and the ability to rise or fall on the chain of hierarchy. “Man is the measure of all things” (Greek ideas). Pride Goeth Before the Fall Renaissance = pride of man. Bonfire of Vanities Savonarola told people to burn their worldly possessions and turn back to spirituality. He was later executed in 1498.
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But nothing could kill the renaissance Critique of Burkhart Renaissance begins before 1400s – in 1085ad o Christians conquer Toliado, Spain. o Center of Hebrew text. o They don’t sack – they save and study. Recover some of the ancient world. o Alfonzo the Wise sets up an Academy in Toliado to translate ancient text into Latin. Crusades o Bring back artwork and text from war. o French knights coming back from Jerusalm Naissance – “Birth of Something New” Lecture 1.2 Machiavelli – “The Prince.” (1512) Circulated as a manuscript (no one would print it) Printed later in secret Subversive text – and the beginning of political science. Talked about what really happens in politics. Told how a prince could get power and retain it o Better to have power and be feared o Than loved and respected Czar Borgios – acts like the prince in “The Prince.” o He ordered his captain to make a blood bath of his enemies and those in his way.
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