4_testnotes - Karl Marx Communist Manifesto Born to...

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Karl Marx Communist Manifesto Born to middle-class family in Germany – ex-Jews, they raised him secular. Got his doctorate at age 23. Marries Jenny Von Goes into exile in Paris Paris still has revolutionary tendencies – the heart of revolution! He meets Frederick Engel there. Write manifesto and moves to London – stays there until he dies. Some key points: o Historical Materialism: economics determines political and intellectual history. He would look at rise/fall of economy, class struggles, and contests between exploited and exploiting to determine why things happened. (e.g. Enlightenment happened because of end of feudalism). o Alienation: alienation of work (no charm in it anymore). Alienation of your labor (your labor is not rewarded corresponding to what you produce and how much employer makes). o Iron Law of Wages (I.L. of W.) Wages go up when prices rise. Falls back to base subsistence due to capitalism. o “Overproduction” – crisis in system (business cycle). 1848 – Revolutions in Europe Starts in Paris – spreads to Germany, Italy, and Rome. “Spring of Nations” – national movements come to power, but are defeated eventually. They are liberal revolutions: Want to move away from absolute constitutional monarchies, want power sharing, want freedom of press, and want free market. Trovellion said, “Turning point in history where history failed to turn.” How it happens: 1 st Paris is always revolutionary. 2 nd 1840s are a difficult time – “Hungry 40s” (extreme case: Ireland). And the economic crisis that comes with capitalism (overproduction). In France: radical middle-class hold banquets to get reform started. Government can’t control these banquets. With massive base, they call for universal manhood suffrage. The King flees and they get the Second Republic (Napoleon destroyed the first one). Fundamental problems: Paris, not French oriented. It will only serve industrial workers in urban areas, not peasants in rural areas. As always, revolution
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starts to consume people on its extreme right and left. Then, Louis Napoleon is elected and declares himself emperor – republic fails. Italy
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4_testnotes - Karl Marx Communist Manifesto Born to...

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