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HISTORY 4A FINAL - ROMANS Quintus Fabius Maximus Cunctator...

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ROMANS Quintus Fabius Maximus Cunctator: Roman politician and general. Born in 280. Roman consul 5 times. Dictator 2 times. Reached office of Roman censor in 230BC. Cunctator mean “delayer”…which refers to his delay to send troops during the Second Punic War. Took part in embassy at Carthage. When Hannibal invaded Italy, he REFUSED to go into battle with him. He wanted to fight a war of attrition. Romans were unimpressed with his tactics and he became UNPOPULAR. (FABIAN STRATEGY) Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus: Also known as Scipio the Elder. Victory gave him the nickname agnomen, “the Roman Hannibal”. General during the Second Punic War. Defeated Hannibal at the Battle of Zama (final battle of the Second Punic War) Battle of Zama involved Hannibal defeating Carthage IN North Africa with Hannibal’s own strategy. Elected consulship without the normal pre-requisites. His military tactics were also highlighted in Battle of Ilipia. Marcus Porcius Cato (319-272) Also known as “Cato the Elder”. Surnamed “the censor”. He was regarded as “ novus homo ”: which means new man. His family never reached the level of Roman Magistracy. Elected consul in 195 BC. He was the first to write history of Rome. He wrote his text in the model of Greek even though he opposed the influx of Greek culture. The first Latin prose writer of ANY importance. Significant in that he was not born into a upper echelon family and rose through the ranks. Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (163BC-133BC) Roman politician in 2 nd Century BC. Brother of Gauis Gracchus. Famous for his agrarian reforms as he served as “tribune of the plebs” . The reforms threatened illegal land owned by rich landowners. He and 300 followers were murdered by opposition in the Roman Senate (Optimates). His military career began in the 3 rd Punic War. Not quite known whether Tiberius’s reforms were out of compassion or political strategy. When soldiers went off to war, their land was often left to their wives. The land was subsequently bankrupt and engulfed by wealthy landowners that would create large estates. Also, when new land was incorporated in Rome AFTER battle, the land was often redistributed unequally to only a few. Gaius Sempronius Gracchus (154BC-121BC) Roman politician of 2 nd Century. Brother of Tiberius Gracchus. Elected “tribune of the plebs” in 123BC-122BC. His social reforms were FAR more reaching than Tiberius. Effectively outlawed “capital punishment” in courts. Said Roman gov. should buy grain in bulk and sell it to Romans at a lower price. Proposed a colony in Carthage. Created secondary roadways to broaden trade/communication networks throughout Italy. Senate was far to threatened by these land reforms. Band together and gave Lucius Opimus full power. Wanted to extend citizenship to all Latin allies. He committed suicide and 3,000 of his followers were put to death.
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Gaius Marius (157BC-86BC) Roman general and politician elected a RECORD SEVEN TIMES as CONSUL. Unheard of by any “novus homo”. Dramatic reforms of the Roman armies and allowed recruitment to NON-landowning Romans.
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HISTORY 4A FINAL - ROMANS Quintus Fabius Maximus Cunctator...

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